Cases reported "Anemia, Iron-Deficiency"

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1/48. Histological estimation of the efficacy of endoscopic laser coagulation therapy for diffuse antral vascular ectasia.

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with successful control of repeated episodes of bleeding from diffuse antral vascular ectasia (DAVE) by laser coagulation therapy. In addition to DAVE, the patient also suffered from severe iron deficiency anaemia (due to recurrent bleeding), liver cirrhosis, and huge tumours of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). She was referred from another hospital after failure to stop her bleeding episodes. Endoscopic examination revealed diffuse speckled telangiectasia over most of the stomach (from antrum to the upper portion of the body) and large numbers of blood clots. The patient had received repeated blood transfusions, haemostatic drugs, and H2 receptor antagonists at the other hospital, without improvement of the repeated bleeding. She underwent three sessions of endoscopic laser coagulation therapy for the lesions at our hospital after the final diagnosis of DAVE had been made based on the characteristic histological findings of biopsied specimens. This treatment improved her general condition and stopped the bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract even without fasting. Unfortunately, however, her liver function gradually worsened due to HCC and previous massive bleeding, and she finally died of liver failure three months after the last laser session. Autopsied specimens obtained from the patient's stomach revealed that macroscopic diffuse speckled telangiectasia and microscopic typical vasodilatation in mucosal and submucosal layers of gastric tissue had disappeared in the treated areas but not all portions of the DAVE lesion. These histological findings for the treated areas, in addition to the clinical improvement of bleeding, suggest that endoscopic laser coagulation therapy may be useful and one of the first choices in treatment for DAVE.
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ranking = 1
keywords = anaemia
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2/48. Severe iron deficiency anaemia and stroke.

    Neurological complications of severe anaemia in childhood are rare. We report a case of severe iron deficiency in a child of 23 months, presenting as an acute hemiparesis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = anaemia
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3/48. Gluten-free diet improves iron-deficiency anaemia in patients with coeliac disease.

    Two cases of newly-diagnosed asymptomatic coeliac disease with 3 years of unexplained severe iron-deficiency anaemia are presented. Oral iron supplementation had no effect on their serum iron levels and, therefore, had no influence on their anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy confirmed normal macroscopic findings. Duodenal biopsies revealed subtotal villous atrophy of the mucosa of the small intestine. A strict gluten-free diet led to an increase in serum iron, resolution of anaemia, and restitution of normal mucosal morphology. Thus, severe iron-deficiency anaemia associated with asymptomatic coeliac disease is responsible to gluten-free diet.
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ranking = 5730.7471929608
keywords = iron-deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia, anaemia
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4/48. Cortical sinovenous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome and iron deficiency anaemia.

    Cortical sinovenous thrombosis in a child with nephrotic syndrome and iron deficiency anaemia is described. The most probable mechanism for the hypercoagulable state was thrombocytosis associated with iron deficiency anaemia. The other possible contributing factor might have been the diuretic therapy during the phase of relapse.
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ranking = 6
keywords = anaemia
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5/48. Enteroscopy as a tool for diagnosing gastrointestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion.

    iron-deficiency anemia secondary to gastrointestinal blood loss is a common cause of hospitalization. In many cases, the bleeding site cannot be defined despite thorough routine examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate push enteroscopy as a diagnostic tool in patients with severe anemia, secondary to recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, that required management by transfusion. Thirty-five consecutive push enteroscopy investigations were performed in 1998 and 1999 on 25 patients (15 men, 10 women). Mean age was 57 /- 16 years (range, 33-83). All patients had received blood transfusions because of pronounced anemia secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding. Before push enteroscopy, all patients had been investigated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and small-bowel radiography using the double contrast technique; no bleeding site was found. In addition, 10 of 25 patients had been investigated beforehand with 99mTc-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy, and 5 of 25 with scintigraphy for meckel diverticulum. Two patients were also investigated with angiography before the push enteroscopy, and in six patients an additional total intraoperative enteroscopy was performed, preceded by a new colonoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and push enteroscopy. A bleeding site was disclosed in 15 of 25 (60%) patients. In 7 of 25 patients (28%) the bleeding site was found in the stomach or esophagus. even though the patients had undergone one or two esophagogastroduodenoscopies earlier with normal findings. Total intraoperative enteroscopy identified a bleeding site in four of six (67%) patients studied. Two patients had bleeding hemangiomas that were resected surgically. Two patients had small intestinal adenomas, one with adenocarcinoma in situ. Push enteroscopy performed with an overtube inserted under fluoroscopic guidance is an important diagnostic tool in patients in whom conventional examinations do not disclose bleeding sites. Interestingly, 28% of patients had bleeding within reach of the gastroscope, indicating that a new upper endoscopy should be recommended before push enteroscopy is performed. When no positive findings are seen on push enteroscopy and the patient is affected by severe, recurrent iron-deficiency anemia, total intraoperative enteroscopy should be considered.
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ranking = 619.12417023253
keywords = iron-deficiency
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6/48. gastric antral vascular ectasia in systemic sclerosis: complete resolution with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide.

    A case of severe, transfusion dependent anaemia in a 72 year old woman, which on endoscopy was found to be due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), is reported. Repeated endoscopic sclerotherapy was ineffective. She subsequently developed Raynaud's phenomenon and on further investigation was found to have classical systemic sclerosis with lung involvement. Treatment with pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide resulted in significant improvement in her pulmonary function tests and skin score. Coincidentally, her haemoglobin stabilised and further endoscopic examinations were normal. This is the first report of cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone leading to complete and sustained resolution of GAVE in association with systemic sclerosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = anaemia
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7/48. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: a case report with long-term follow-up.

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is an uncommon condition manifested by gastrointestinal and skin hemangiomas that lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. The purpose of this report is to present a case with long-term follow-up. The patient is a 37-year-old female with a life-long history of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. She underwent multiple resectional operations that combined to give her a partial gastrectomy, partial small bowel resection, total abdominal colectomy, and end ileostomy. She continues to need endoscopy with sclerotherapy. In addition, she has iron-deficiency anemia, nephrolithiasis, major depression, and malnutrition despite vitamin and caloric supplements. There are no other reports showing these complications of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome or with this length of follow-up. Therapy for blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome should be conservative if possible, because operative therapy may lead to significant long-term complications.
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ranking = 619.12417023253
keywords = iron-deficiency
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8/48. First report of an isolated jejunal seminoma: presentation with melaena and iron deficiency anaemia.

    We present the case history of a man with isolated seminoma in the jejunum and abnormal testes but no provable malignant testicular disease. Treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy led to complete resolution of the jejunal seminoma. The rarity of seminoma involving the small bowel is highlighted. A literature search did not reveal other similar cases of isolated seminoma affecting the jejunum. The possible origins of this tumour are discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = anaemia
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9/48. mitral valve prolapse with pulmonary haemosiderosis and severe anaemia: cause or association?

    A 12 years boy presented with the history of pallor for one month. Two days before hospitalisation he developed fever, cough, shortness of breath. He had past history of such episode.On examination, his heart rate was found to be 120/minute, respiratory rate 40/minute and moderate anaemia was detected. Scattered creptus was audible over mid and lower lung fields and a soft systolic murmur was auscultated at apex. On investigations, Hb was found as 4.6 g/dl and HbF was less than 2%. plasma Hb was 5 g/dl. Straight x-ray chest showed bilateral patchy opacities over mid and lower zones. His sputum was found to be blood stained and prompted the possibility of blood loss occurring in the lungs, which was confirmed by demonstrating haemosiderin laden macrophages on three consecutive sputum specimens. echocardiography revealed a systolic displacement of mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium with co-optation superior to the plane of mitral annulus. Doppler study showed a minimal late systolic regurgitation. It was decided to treat the case as idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis. oxygen inhalation, hypertonic saline nebulisation, i.v. hydrocortisone, packed cell transfusion followed by oral prednisolone improved the patient's condition. After 3 months of discontinuing prednisolone, he remained asymptomatic. Here one case of pulmonary haemosiderosis characterised by abnormal accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs following repeated alveolar haemorrhages with the presence of mitral valve prolapse is reported.
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ranking = 5
keywords = anaemia
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10/48. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis.

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis is a very rare but devastating disorder. diagnosis is sometimes difficult and the clinical course exceedingly variable, as illustrated by this report of a girl, aged 2 years 4 months, with severe iron deficiency anaemia. There was no response to iron therapy and transfusions. Sustained and striking reticulocytosis associated with low haptoglobin mimicked haemolytic anaemia. Positive faecal blood test was documented after repeated testing. There were no pulmonary symptoms. A chest radiograph showed bilateral diffuse alveolar infiltrates. bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed numerous siderophages. High resolution computed tomography of the thorax revealed early pulmonary fibrotic changes. Recurrent reticulocytosis appeared to be a very useful sign of recurrent bleeding episodes.
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ranking = 2
keywords = anaemia
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