Cases reported "anemia, myelophthisic"

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1/25. Myelophthisis as a solitary manifestation of failure from rectal carcinoma. A Batson phenomenon?

    Rectal carcinoma is uncommonly associated with systemic metastases in the absence of liver metastases, reflecting the predilection for spread via the portal system. Occasionally, isolated lung metastases are seen, which are usually attributed to spread via the portosystemic anastomoses in the distal rectum. However, myelophthisis is an unreported complication of rectal cancer as an isolated form of systemic failure. We present a case of fatal myelophthisis associated with otherwise localized rectal carcinoma secondary to metastatic rectal cancer. This observation led to the hypothesis that spread to the bone marrow occurred via a "third circulation," the Batson plexus, a network of deep pelvic veins with rich anastomoses to the vertebral plexus. ( info)

2/25. Clinical spectrum of myelophthisis in cancer patients.

    Myelophthisis is a form of bone marrow failure due to replacement of hematopoietic tissue by abnormal tissue, most commonly metastatic carcinomas. This results in extramedullary hematopoiesis, typically in the spleen leading to premature release of hematopoietic cells into the circulation. Peripheral blood findings may include nucleated red blood cells, tear drop forms, giant platelets, and immature leukocytes. This is called a leukoerythroblastic picture. The first case demonstrates acute myelophthisis as a presentation of pancreatic cancer. The second case is of extramedullary hematopoiesis as a manifestation of widely metastatic melanoma. The presence of a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture should serve as a valuable clue about a possible underlying malignancy. This late presentation of advanced cancer may now be rarely seen because of early diagnosis and more effective therapies. ( info)

3/25. Premature labor and leukoerythroblastosis in a newborn with parvovirus B19 infection.

    Leukoerythroblastosis is a rarely observed disease characterized by the presence of leukocytosis, erythroid and myeloid blast cells in peripheral blood. To our knowledge, it had not been diagnosed in a premature newborn before the case we report have.A female baby weighing 1164 grams, who was born prematurely at the 29th week of gestation by cesarean section was referred to our newborn intensive care unit due to prematurity and respiratory distress with no prenatal pathological findings. physical examination revealed tachypnea and hepatosplenomegaly. Routine laboratory measurements showed significant leukocytosis (85,000/mm3) and anemia (Hb: 9.6 g/dL and Hct: 27.6%). The platelet count was normal. The peripheral blood smear suggested leukoerythroblastosis with the presence of nucleated erythrocytes, monocytosis, and 4% blasts. Bone marrow cytogenetic examination was normal. parvovirus B19 Ig G and M serology were detected to be positive.The etiological factors observed in leukoerythroblastosis occurring during neonatal and early childhood period are congenital-postnatal viral infections, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and osteopetrosis. To our knowledge, no case of leukoerythroblastosis in such an early phase has been reported in the in literature. As a result, premature delivery and leukoerythroblastosis were thought to have developed secondary to intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection.Leukoerythroblastosis is a rarely observed disease characterized by the presence of leukocytosis, erythroid and myeloid blast cells in peripheral blood. It is reported that it can be observed following hematologic malignancies especially juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute infections, hemolytic anemia, osteopetrosis, myelofibrosis, neuroblastoma and taking certain medicines. To our knowledge, it has not been diagnosed in a premature newborn before. Here we the case of a newborn who was referred to our intensive care unit due to being born prematurely at the 29th week of gestation and diagnosed with leukoerythroblastosis. ( info)

4/25. Biochemical values, complement levels, and hemostatic data in septic leukoerythroblastosis.

    Recently, the association of granulocytic fragments on blood smear with leukoerythroblastosis in sepsis has been identified in nine patients. Granulocytic fragments were identified by both light and electron microscopy as well as cytochemistry. Leukoerythroblastosis is a poorly defined, uncommon syndrome with leukocytosis, left shift, and nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) disproportionate to the degree of anemia, which may be associated with leukemia or neoplasia in the bone marrow, acute infection, hemolysis, myelofibrosis, or miscellaneous causes. Here a subgroup with high white blood cells (WBC) and acute infection was studied. The corrected WBC for nine patients was 40 x 10(9) per L with 33 nRBC per 100 WBC; serum C3 and C4 levels before and after the development of leukoerythroblastosis were 0.6 /- 2 g per L; 0.18 /- 0.04 g per L pre-leukoerythroblastosis and 0.7 /- 0.46 g per L; 0.30 /- 0.27 g per L post-leukoerythroblastosis, respectively, in four patients. The platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) were 133 x 10(9) per L, 24.4 sec., and 53.5 sec., respectively, for nine patients. Multiphasic chemistries at the time of leukoerythroblastosis were measured in five patients; abnormal values included calcium of 2.0 /- 0.4 mmol per L, creatinine of 336 /- 130 mumol per L, total protein of 45 /- 17 g per L, albumin of 27 /- 11 g per L, total bilirubin of 421 /- 362 mumol per L, uric acid of 499 /- 264 mumol per L, triglycerides of 4.9 /- 3.7 mmol per L, and alkaline phosphatase of 3.5 /- 1.0 mu kat per L.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ( info)

5/25. Granulocytic fragments in sepsis.

    We report here three patients with sepsis and one with acute pancreatitis and possible sepsis who developed granulocytic fragments on blood smears obtained prior to death. In case 1, these fragments were identified cytochemically. In case 3, granulocytic cytoplasmic projections and fragments were identified by electron microscopy of the buffy coat. All patients had leukerythroblastosis. The average corrected white blood count (WBC) was 46 X 10(9)/liter with 34 nucleated red blood cells (nRBC)/100 WBC. Patient 1 had thrombocytosis whereas patients 2, 3, and 4 were thrombocytopenic. Terminal complement levels were decreased in patients 3 and 4 as previously noted in sepsis (Sprung CL, Shultz DR, Marcial E, et al.: complement activation in septic shock patients. Crit Care Med 14:525, 1986). A general correlation between nRBC and granulocytic fragments/100 hpf (high power field) was observed in patients 3 and 4. Granulocytic fragments were not identified on the blood smears of several patients with leukemoid reactions without erythroblastosis. Although the precise etiology of these fragments is unclear, we believe their recognition is important because all patients died within 32 hours after granulocytic fragments were identified. Furthermore, these fragments can falsely elevate the platelet count. Although myeloid fragments have previously been noted in leukemia and lymphoma, this is the first report of their association with conditions unrelated to hematologic neoplasms. These fragments can easily be recognized by careful examination of the blood smear and represent a newly recognized aspect of the septic shock syndrome. ( info)

6/25. Familial hypercholesterolemia with unusual foamy histiocytes. Report of a case with myelophthisic anemia and xanthoma of the maxillary sinus.

    Accumulation of phagocytic histiocytes with a foam cell morphology has been described in a number of diseases. Familial hypercholesterolemia, one such disease, is characterized by foamy histiocytic accumulation in cutaneous or tendinous xanthomas and within atheromatous lesions. This report describes a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia who had two unusual manifestations of foamy histiocytic accumulation: a maxillary sinus xanthoma, which presented as an expansile mass, and diffuse bone marrow replacement with foamy histiocytes, which was associated with myelophthisic anemia. The accumulation of foamy cells in both locations resembled that seen in many of the storage diseases. The possibility of foamy histiocytic accumulation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with these disease entities who present with space-occupying lesions. ( info)

7/25. An unusual case of pycnodysostosis.

    A 6 year old boy with clinical and radiological features of pycnodysostosis is described. In addition to pycnodysostosis he had a myelophthisic type of anaemia suggesting an overlap with osteopetrosis. ( info)

8/25. Leukoerythroblastosis with blasts in a patient with alcoholic hepatitis.

    Leukemoid reactions are common in alcoholic hepatitis. We report a case of biopsy-proven alcoholic hepatitis with leukoerythroblastosis and blasts on the peripheral smear. We take this to be the second case of blasts and the first case of leukoerythroblastosis reported in a patient with alcoholic hepatitis. ( info)

9/25. A possible case of chronic leukoerythroblastosis associated with t(12;14)(p13;q22) in bone marrow cells.

    The case is presented of a 64-year-old man who has had recurrent psychiatric symptoms over several years, and now has minor evidence of a myeloproliferative disorder. He had a buccal carcinoma successfully treated 33 years previously, thus, the possibility of bone marrow infiltration has been excluded. An acquired translocation that was found in his bone marrow cells has not been previously reported in association with any neoplasm. The possible significance of the translocation to this patient is discussed. ( info)

10/25. Giant basal cell carcinoma with metastases and myelophthisic anemia.

    We report a 59-year-old, dark-complexioned black man with a giant basal cell carcinoma infiltrating virtually the entire scalp. Widespread metastatic bone marrow involvement produced a myelophthisic anemia. Basal cell carcinoma is rare in blacks, is rarely this large, and very rarely produces myelophthisic anemia from bone marrow metastases. ( info)
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