Cases reported "Anemia"

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1/5. copper deficiency anemia and nephrosis in zinc-toxicity: a case report.

    zinc is a ubiquitous element that is essential for normal enzymatic function in multiple metabolic pathways. Chronic excessive zinc ingestion causes severe reversible anemia in humans. In animals, zinc toxicity leads to anemia as well as physiologic and morphologic damage to the pancreas, kidneys, and often, multisystem failure and death. In this case, a young female ingested approximately 2000 mg of zinc gluconate daily for 12 months. She subsequently developed anemia consistent with zinc-induced copper deficiency and severe nephrosis. After cessation of zinc ingestion, her anemia and nephrosis resolved. This case study underscores the importance of an accurate and thorough investigation of nutritional supplements during the history and physical examination. Given the promulgation of zinc for the treatment of skin disorders and the common cold, along with the commercialization of nutritional supplements, unimpeded by regulatory guidelines, it is imperative that primary care physicians be attuned to the potentially dangerous consequences of excessive zinc ingestion.
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keywords = animal
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2/5. erythropoietin has an anti-myeloma effect - a hypothesis based on a clinical observation supported by animal studies.

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) was introduced into clinical practice more than a decade ago, and has been found to be effective in the treatment of several types of anemia, including anemia of end-stage renal failure and cancer-related anemia. No study has suggested that Epo might have an effect on the biology of the disease, nor any survival advantage to cancer patients treated with Epo for anemia has been reported. Here we report six patients with advanced multiple myeloma (MM) with very poor prognostic features, whose expected survival was <6 months. All six patients were treated with rHuEpo for their anemia, either without any chemotherapy or very mild chemotherapy for a short time. Yet, surprisingly they lived for 45-133 months totally from MM diagnosis and 38-94 months with rHuEpo (with a good quality of life). In fact, one patient, is still alive and well, more than 8 yr after chemotherapy was discontinued because of a resistant aggressive disease. The course in these six MM patients led us to hypothesize that Epo might have an antineoplastic or antimyeloma effect. We proceeded and tested that hypothesis in mouse models of myeloma (Mittelman M et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5181,2001). In these models we confirmed that rHuEpo induced tumor regression in about 50% of the BALB/c mice inoculated with MOPC-315 myeloma cells. We then presented evidence that the mechanism is a new immune-mediated phenomenon, via activation of CD8 T cells. Furthermore, evidence from the literature supports the antineoplastic effect of Epo. Epo might be used as an adjunct immune treatment in various malignant diseases, in addition to the current regimens and chemotherapeutic protocols. Future trials should determine the role of Epo in myeloma and cancer treatment, besides clarifying concerns about the presence of Epo receptors on some tumor cells.
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keywords = animal
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3/5. Microcytic anemia and hepatic iron overload in a child with compound heterozygous mutations in DMT1 (SCL11A2).

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mediates apical iron uptake in duodenal enterocytes and iron transfer from the transferrin receptor endosomal cycle into the cytosol in erythroid cells. Both mk mice and Belgrade rats, which carry an identical DMT1 mutation, exhibit severe microcytic anemia at birth and defective intestinal iron use and erythroid iron use. We report the hematologic phenotype of a child, compound heterozygote for 2 DMT1 mutations, who was affected by severe anemia since birth and showed hepatic iron overload. The novel mutations were a 3-bp deletion in intron 4 (c.310-3_5del CTT) resulting in a splicing abnormality and a C>T transition at nucleotide 1246(p. R416C). A striking reduction of DMT1 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated by Western blot analysis. The proband required blood transfusions until erythropoietin treatment allowed transfusion independence when hemoglobin levels between 75 and 95 g/L (7.5 and 9.5 g/dL) were achieved. Hematologic data of this patient at birth and in the first years of life strengthen the essential role of DMT1 in erythropoiesis. The early onset of iron overload indicates that, as in animal models, DMT1 is dispensable for liver iron uptake, whereas its deficiency in the gut is likely bypassed by the up-regulation of other pathways of iron use.
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keywords = animal
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4/5. Lead-contaminated health food. association with lead poisoning and leukemia.

    A doctor prescribed a dietary supplement prepared from powdered animal bone for a young woman with dysmenorrhea. Severe lead poisoning developed while she was taking the powder, which was shown to be contaminated with lead. The diagnosis eluded more than 20 physicians and was finally made by the patient herself. The Food and Drug Administration, informed of the contamination, declined to take action, stating that a food supplement is neither a food nor a drug and, besides, there are no maximal limits for heavy-metal contamination of foods and drugs.
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keywords = animal
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5/5. Essential thrombocythemia in a dog: case report and literature review.

    A 10.5-year-old, castrated male shih tzu was presented for evaluation of weakness, pica, and pallor of the mucous membranes. A hemogram indicated an inflammatory leukogram and a regenerative anemia with spherocytosis and thrombocytosis. The dog responded well to conservative therapy for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). However, the thrombocytosis did not resolve. Serial hemograms were characterized by persistent thrombocytosis (platelet count, 577,000 to 1,200,000/microl) with abnormal platelet morphology. A systematic investigation ruled out causes of physiological and reactive thrombocytoses. A diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia was made by fulfilling the criteria of the polycythemia vera Study Group of the National Cancer Institute. The marked thrombocytosis was nonresponsive to hydroxyurea therapy. The dog remains healthy despite the marked increase in the number of circulating platelets. A review of causes of thrombocytoses in humans and animals is presented, and the criteria for diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia are examined.
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