Cases reported "Anemia"

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1/39. Hematopoietic effect of Radix angelicae sinensis in a hemodialysis patient.

    The primary cause of anemia of chronic renal failure (CRF) is insufficient production of erythropoietin by the diseased kidneys. Although most patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) respond to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment, 4% prove to be rHuEPO resistant. The patient presented in this case study suffered from anemia of CRF that was resistant to rHuEPO therapy. He experienced marked improvement in the anemia after self-initiating regular consumption of the Chinese herb Dang qui (botanical name: Radix angelicae sinensis). The significant hematologic amelioration occurred in the face of a major decrease in the amount of rHuEPO administered. The causes and mechanisms of inadequate response to rHuEPO, as well as the possible beneficial hematopoietic effects of this herbal preparation, are discussed.
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2/39. Acute vision loss in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) often present with renal insufficiency and hypertension. We present two children with ARPKD and end-stage renal disease who developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and vision loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs rarely in children and has never been reported in children with ARPKD or end-stage renal disease. Both of our patients were chronically hypotensive and anemic, which are known risk factors for ischemic optic neuropathy.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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3/39. Characterization of a novel mitochondrial dna deletion in a patient with a variant of the Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome.

    We have recently diagnosed a patient with anaemia, severe tubulopathy, and diabetes mellitus. As the clinical characteristics resembled Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome, despite the absence of malfunctioning of the exocrine pancreas in this patient, we have performed dna analysis to seek for deletions in mtDNA. dna analysis showed a novel heteroplasmic deletion in mtDNA of 8034bp in length, with high proportions of deleted mtDNA in leukocytes, liver, kidney, and muscle. No deletion could be detected in mtDNA of leukocytes from her mother and young brother, indicating the sporadic occurrence of this deletion. During culture, skin fibroblasts exhibited a rapid decrease of heteroplasmy indicating a selection against the deletion in proliferating cells. We estimate that per cell division heteroplasmy levels decrease by 0.8%. By techniques of fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and mitochondria-mediated transformation of rho(o) cells we could show inter- as well as intracellular variation in the distribution of deleted mtDNA in a cell population of cultured skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, we studied the mitochondrial translation capacity in cybrid cells containing various proportions of deleted mtDNA. This result revealed a sharp threshold, around 80%, in the proportion of deleted mtDNA, above which there was strong depression of overall mitochondrial translation, and below which there was complementation of the deleted mtDNA by the wild-type dna. Moreover, catastrophic loss of mtDNA occurred in cybrid cells containing 80% deleted mtDNA.
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4/39. Human parvovirus B19 infection presenting as persistent anemia in renal transplant recipients.

    BACKGROUND: immunosuppression cannot be achieved without immunosuppressive effects. Human parvovirus infection is known to occur after organ transplantation. We present our experience with parvovirus infection in two cases. methods AND RESULTS: Two kidney transplant recipients developed symptomatic anemia requiring blood transfusions. Common causes of anemia, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, iron/vitamin deficiencies, hemolysis, and drug toxicities, were ruled out. A peripheral smear revealed low reticulocyte count. bone marrow examination showed hypoplastic bone marrow with intranuclear inclusions suggestive of human parvovirus. This was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Treatment with i.v. immunoglobulin g resulted in a dramatic sustained response. Transplant kidney function remained stable. CONCLUSION: Human parvovirus infections should be considered in immunosuppressed individuals with anemia with poor bone marrow response. bone marrow examination can reveal viral inclusions and can be confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Intravenous immunoglobulin g results in resolution of anemia.
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5/39. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and dialysis: role of hypotension and anemia.

    The pathogenesis of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) primarily involves interference with the posterior ciliary artery blood supply to the prelaminar optic nerve. Uremic patients often have coexisting pathology such as hypotension (decreased blood delivery), or hypertension, atherosclerosis (increased resistance to blood supply), and anemia (low blood oxygen carrying capacity), predisposing them to AION. We describe a 49-year-old patient on dialysis for many years. He had long-standing hypotension, worsened during each dialysis treatment. He awoke one morning at age 48 complaining of blurred vision in the left inferior field. Based on the clinical course, funduscopic and fluorangiographic examination and visual field defects, AION was diagnosed. Nine months after the loss of vision in the left eye, vision in the right eye became blurred and worsened over the next 24 hours. The diagnosis of AION in the right eye was made. At the last examination ten months later, the patient, still amaurotic, was given a very poor prognosis for further recovery of the visual defects. Surprisingly, very few cases of AION have been reported in chronic uremic patients on dialysis: to the best of our knowledge, only 12 including ours. Most of these cases share some features, including hypotension above all and anemia as common risk factors. Neither the type of dialysis treatment (hemo-, peritoneal dialysis) nor sex seem to have any influence on the occurrence of AION. Uremic children can be affected. What is striking in the three published pediatric cases is that they all had polycystic kidney disease. Treatment of AION in all 12 cases consisted of a combination of steroids, i.v. saline, blood transfusions and rhEpo. AION was more frequently bilateral and irreversible, ending in permanent amaurosis. In conclusion, this study aims to stress that most cases of AION occurring in chronic uremic patients on dialysis have some common features, including hypotension above all and anemia as common risk factors.
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ranking = 76.252612877363
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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6/39. Hemoglobin levels, cardiovascular disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Case study of the anemic patient.

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. anemia, a well-defined risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has been shown to contribute to the development of angina pectoris, ischemic events, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Data indicate that these cardiovascular-related disorders are often ameliorated or reversed in patients who maintain hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the 11 to 12 g/dL range recommended by NKF-K/DOQI. Conversely, Hb levels below 11 g/dL result in an increase in cardiovascular disorders and a 2.9-fold increased risk of death. nephrology nurses should understand the interplay between Hb levels and cardiovascular disease, and how their efforts to maintain Hb levels > or = 11 g/dL can positively affect patient outcomes.
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ranking = 381.26306438682
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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7/39. anemia in CKD: prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment. Case study of the anemic patient.

    A point-in-time observational study was conducted in over 1,000 nephrology offices between November 1999 and December 2000 to determine the prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Trends in hemoglobin (Hb) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels were assessed among 4,831 evaluable patients to determine the relationship between renal function and anemia. Results demonstrated that anemia is common in patients with CKD, with progressive increases in prevalence and severity as renal function deteriorates. overall, 26.3% of these patients had Hb levels below 10 g/dL, 46.7% had Hb levels below 11 g/dL, and 63.9% had Hb levels below 12 g/dL. Despite the high percent of patients with anemia, only 31.3% were being treated for this condition. These data suggest that anemia is prevalent and undertreated in patients with CKD. nephrology nurses can be influential in providing proactive management of anemia throughout the spectrum of CKD to improve anemia-related outcomes.
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ranking = 76.252612877363
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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8/39. A case of erythropoietin induced hypertension in a bilaterally nephrectomized patient.

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) is an established tool for correction of renal anemia. It is well known that chronic administration of r-HuEPO often causes hypertension in dialysis patients. However, the mechanism of the r-HuEPO induced hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We report a case of r-HuEPO induced hypertension in an anephric patient. In this case, hemodialysis was started after removal of both kidneys because of rupture of an angiomyolipoma. Although mean blood pressure (BP) did not change during the period of rapid correction of renal anemia by blood transfusion, treatment with r-HuEPO significantly increased mean BP. Also, discontinuation of r-HuEPO resulted in a decrease in mean BP. These results suggested that r-HuEPO caused an elevation in BP in the absence of kidneys, and the elevation in BP was thought to be independent of an increase in hematocrit level or hypervolemia. We also investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in r-HuEPO induced alteration of BP. A significant negative correlation was found between a decrease in serum NO level and an increase in mean BP during the period of r-HuEPO administration. The results suggest that an inhibitory effect of r-HuEPO on NO production might be, at least in part, related to the r-HuEPO induced hypertension in this case.
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keywords = kidney
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9/39. anemia management in patients with chronic conditions that affect erythropoiesis. Case study of the anemic patients.

    anemia management programs typically strive to maintain hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the target range of 11 to 12 g/dL recommended by the National kidney Foundation's kidney disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI). Although nephrology clinicians are constantly alert for conditions that cause hyporesponse to Epoetin alfa therapy, management protocols generally focus on assessing and managing acute disorders that affect the production of red blood cells. A more difficult clinical challenge is how to systematically manage patients with conditions that chronically affect the erythropoietic response and are intractable to routine therapies. This article addresses the etiology and management of chronic conditions that require a specialized anemia management approach to ensure that patients can achieve targeted Hb levels and associated clinical and quality of life benefits. Examples include chronic inflammatory disorders, severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, malignancies, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), and kidney transplant failure.
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10/39. copper deficiency anemia and nephrosis in zinc-toxicity: a case report.

    zinc is a ubiquitous element that is essential for normal enzymatic function in multiple metabolic pathways. Chronic excessive zinc ingestion causes severe reversible anemia in humans. In animals, zinc toxicity leads to anemia as well as physiologic and morphologic damage to the pancreas, kidneys, and often, multisystem failure and death. In this case, a young female ingested approximately 2000 mg of zinc gluconate daily for 12 months. She subsequently developed anemia consistent with zinc-induced copper deficiency and severe nephrosis. After cessation of zinc ingestion, her anemia and nephrosis resolved. This case study underscores the importance of an accurate and thorough investigation of nutritional supplements during the history and physical examination. Given the promulgation of zinc for the treatment of skin disorders and the common cold, along with the commercialization of nutritional supplements, unimpeded by regulatory guidelines, it is imperative that primary care physicians be attuned to the potentially dangerous consequences of excessive zinc ingestion.
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