Cases reported "Anemia"

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1/20. Rapid development of severe copper deficiency in a patient with Crohn's disease receiving parenteral nutrition.

    A 32-year-old man with active Crohn's disease and recurrent small bowel strictures underwent abdominal surgery and was subsequently given total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Severe cholestasis developed and copper was removed from the TPN. Although serum ceruloplasmin levels were within normal limits, 8 weeks after copper removal, he developed pancytopenia. serum copper levels were severely depressed. bone marrow biopsy was consistent with copper deficiency; cytoplasmic vacuolization of both myeloid and erythroid precursors, megaloblastic erthropoiesis, and marked hypocellularity were observed. IV replacement with copper sulfate resulted in improvement in the patient's anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, but the patient died suddenly from cardiac tamponade. Postmortem examination revealed fibrinous and hemorrhagic pericarditis. Despite the rare occurrence of overt copper deficiency, this case emphasizes the need to recognize copper deficiency as an important etiology of iron-resistant anemia in patients receiving TPN. Furthermore, the relative rapidity with which our patient developed pancytopenia suggests that, in view of the established recommendation that copper be removed from TPN in cholestatic conditions, serum copper levels must be measured periodically.
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2/20. splenectomy may improve the glomerulopathy of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    Many patients with type II mixed cryoglobulinemia have been shown to be infected with hapatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, interferon-alfa has become the first choice of treatment for patients with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia. However, the disease often relapses after the discontinuation of interferon therapy. The long-term effect of interferon therapy is controversial. Therefore, a more effective therapy needs to be developed. A 62-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for the examination of abnormal liver function tests, severe edema, and purpura in her lower extremities. Glomerulopathy secondary to HCV-related cryoglobulinemia was suspected. Her serum creatinine was increased to 2.1 mg/dL. Interferon therapy was considered initially. However, because of pancytopenia caused by liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly, splenectomy was performed in February 1997, before the start of interferon therapy. Renal biopsy specimen taken at the time of the splenectomy showed typical cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis. Gradually, after surgery, the patient's thrombocytopenia and anemia improved, her proteinuria and hematuria were decreased, her cryocrit dropped from 15% to 5%, the Ccr increased from 21.1 mL/min to 48.8 mL/min, and the purpura in her lower extremities disappeared. A repeat renal biopsy performed in May 1998 showed marked histological improvement. splenectomy is not widely accepted as a treatment for cryoglobulinemia. Our case suggests the possibility that the monoclonal-IgM component of the type II cryoglobulin may be formed in the spleen. In conclusion, splenectomy may be an effective therapy for cryoglobulinemia in patients with HCV-positive liver cirrhosis and pancytopenia secondary to splenomegaly.
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3/20. ehrlichiosis infection in a 5-year-old boy with neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly.

    ehrlichiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with recent fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and history of tick exposure. We present a previously healthy 5-year-old boy who was referred to the hematology-Oncology Clinic to consider a bone marrow etiologic process after his pediatrician discovered progressive neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly accompanied by 2 days of fever. bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were nonrevealing. Because of the history of a recent tick bite, a diagnosis of ehrlichiosis infection was considered and ultimately confirmed by IgG-specific serum testing. The patient's fever was treated symptomatically with acetaminophen, and symptoms resolved on their own without intervention. ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infection that occurs throughout the spring and summer, often causing findings that mimic a malignancy or serious hematologic disorder. The diagnosis should be considered in any person living in tick-infested areas and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or serum antibody titers. Treatment with doxycycline can lead to rapid clinical improvement if the diagnosis is made early.
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4/20. T-cell receptor gammadelta T-cell leukemia with the morphology of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia and a postthymic immunophenotype.

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a postthymic T-cell neoplasm with a characteristic morphology and heterogeneous immunophenotype. Most cases of T-PLL express membrane T-cell receptors (TCRs) of the alphabeta phenotype. We experienced a 30-year-old man suffering from TCRgammadelta T-cell leukemia with morphology compatible to T-PLL with a postthymic phenotype. He was admitted with skin eruption and pancytopenia. Peripheral blood and bone marrow were occupied with medium-sized lymphocytes, which had moderately condensed chromatin with a single nucleolus and sparse, nongranular basophilic cytoplasm. The immunophenotype was CD1a-, CD2-, CD3 , CD4-, CD5 , CD7 , CD8-, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase negative. Hepatosplenomegaly was absent. He was diagnosed as having T-PLL and was treated with combination chemotherapy. Six months later the leukemic cell became chemoresistant. Although the patient showed transient improvement in response to pentostatin, he died 13 months after the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of T-PLL with a TCRgammadelta phenotype.
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5/20. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting with rapidly progressing myelofibrosis.

    Myelofibrosis following peripheral T-cell lymphoma has rarely been reported. Described here is a case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with myelofibrosis and elevated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). A 69 years old male was admitted due to anemia and thrombocytopenia. His bone marrow showed fibrosis and was infiltrated with small lymphoid cells and a few residual normal hematopoietic cells. He had presented with hepatosplenomegaly and left inguinal lymph node swelling. biopsy of the left inguinal lymph node revealed diffuse mature small lymphoid cells with atypical nuclei. immunophenotyping of the small lymphoid cells were positive for CD3, CD8, TCR alphabeta and HLA-DR and were negative for CD4, CD19, CD20 and CD56. T-cell receptor beta-chain gene was rearranged in bone marrow cells. He was diagnosed as having peripheral T-cell lymphoma complicated with myelofibrosis. Chemotherapy was administrated which improved his pancytopenia and symptoms. Two years later, anemia and thrombocytopenia developed rather quickly, he died because of progression of myelofibrosis with severe pancytopenia.
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6/20. Case of complete recovery of pancytopenia after treatment of hypopituitarism.

    We describe a 55-year-old woman who presented with pancytopenia with a normocytic and normochromic anemia which was progressive despite conventional treatments such as folic acid, vitamin B6, and oxymetholone. Her physical findings and history of a previous massive postpartum hemorrhage suggested Sheehan's syndrome, and the pituitary hormonal studies revealed panhypopituitarism. After 4 months of thyroxine and glucocorticoid replacement therapy, her pancytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia recovered completely. pancytopenia is a rare manifestation of a hormonal abnormality, but hematologists need to be aware of panhypopituitarism as a differential diagnosis when women showing features of hypopituitarism present with pancytopenia because it can be reversed with adequate hormone replacement.
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7/20. parvovirus B19-related anaemia after renal transplantation.

    We describe here the case of a renal transplant recipient treated by sirolimus based immunosuppresive therapy, who developed severe and unusual pancytopenia 2 months after renal transplantation. parvovirus B19 primo-infection was diagnosed. The first course of intravenous immunoglobulin failed. bone marrow aspiration confirmed megaloblastic anaemia associated with parvovirus B19. Finally, this infection was succesfully treated by the reduction of immunosuppression combined with a second course of intravenous immunoglobulin.
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8/20. Amelioration of anemia after kidney transplantation in severe secondary oxalosis.

    INTRODUCTION: In small bowel disease such as M. Crohn, the intestinal absorption of oxalate is increased. Severe calcium oxalate deposition in multiple organs as consequence of enteric hyperoxaluria may lead to severe organ dysfunction and chronic renal failure. The management of hemodialyzed patients with short bowel syndrome may be associated with vascular access problems and oxalate infiltration of the bone marrow leading to pancytopenia. Although the risk of recurrence of the disease is very high after renal transplantation, it may be the ultimate therapeutic alternative in secondary hyperoxaluria. CASE: Here, we report a patient with enteric oxalosis due to Crohn's disease. He developed end-stage renal disease, erythropoietin-resistant anemia, oxalate infiltration of the bone marrow and severe vascular access problems. Following high-urgency kidney transplantation, daily hemodiafiltration of 3 hours was performed for 2 weeks to increase oxalate clearance. Despite tubular and interstitial deposition of oxalate in the renal transplant, the patient did not require further hemodialysis and the hematocrit levels normalized. DISCUSSION: Early treatment of hyperoxaluria due to short bowel syndrome is essential to prevent renal impairment. Declining renal function leads to a further increase in oxalate accumulation and consecutive oxalate deposition in the bone marrow or in the vascular wall. If alternative treatments such as special diet or daily hemodialysis are insufficient, kidney transplantation may be a therapeutic alternative in severe cases of enteric oxalosis despite a possible recurrence of the disease.
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9/20. Pachydermoperiostosis with myelofibrosis and anemia: report of a case of anemia of multifactorial causes and its improvement with steroid pulse and iron therapy.

    A 26-year-old male patient with pachydermoperiostosis is reported. He had severe anemia with myelofibrosis. Treatment with iron, prednisolone, oxymethorone and 1 alpha (OH)D3 were not satisfactory. But steroid pulse therapy with parenteral iron improved his anemia and pancytopenia, but was not sufficient to relieve the bone marrow fibrosis or splenomegaly. The mechanism of anemia which was considered to be multifactorial including gastro-intestinal bleeding associated with peptic ulcer or erosion and bone marrow failure due to myelofibrosis, is discussed.
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10/20. A family with acute leukemia, hypoplastic anemia and cerebellar ataxia: association with bone marrow C-monosomy.

    The eldest brother in a sibship of five children died of acute myelogenous leukemia at 10 years of age. The second and third eldest brothers died of hypoplastic anemia at ages five and nine years, respectively. A surviving 6 year old brother, the proband of the study, has abnormalities that suggest a preleukemic state: mild pancytopenia, platelet dysfunction, immunodeficiency, and bone marrow hypoplasia with approximately 18 per cent blast forms. His 17 year old sister has a mild normochromic normocytic anemia. Cytogenetic studies revealed C-group monosomy in the bone marrows of the proband and the third brother (45, XY, -C); band studies demonstrated that a No. 8 chromosome was missing in the proband (45, XY, -8). At least four of the siblings and their father had cerebellar ataxia, and evidence of a small cerebellum at autopsy examination or by computerized axial tomography. The disorder in this family has major features of two autosomal recessive preleukemic diseases, ataxia-telangiectasia and Fanconi's anemia. However, these and other inherited conditions were excluded by clinical or laboratory criteria, and no environmental causes of the familial disorder were found. The constellation of abnormalities in the family may constitute a new genetic syndrome.
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