Cases reported "Aneuploidy"

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1/380. Intrachromosomal triplication of 2q11.2-q21 in a severely malformed infant: case report and review of triplications and their possible mechanism.

    A female fetus with brain malformations, multicystic kidneys, absence of the right thumb, and a posterior cleft of palate was delivered at 32 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic studies including FISH showed a novel intrachromosomal triplication of the proximal long arm of chromosome 2 (q11.2-q21), resulting in tetrasomy for this segment. The middle repeat was inverted. At least 11 patients with intrachromosomal triplications have been reported, mostly involving chromosome 15q. The mechanism involved in formation of these rearrangements is compatible with U-type exchange events among three chromatids.
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2/380. Sex chromosome pentasomy (49,XXXXY) presenting as cystic hygroma at 16 weeks' gestation.

    The pentasomy 49,XXXXY is one of the rarest sex chromosome defects, occurring with an estimated incidence of 1 in 85 000 male births. This condition is associated with pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, severe mental retardation, hypogenitalism, and other skeletal, facial and cardio-vascular anomalies. In this report we present such a case diagnosed prenatally by chorionic villus sampling after the ultrasound detection of cystic hygroma at 16 weeks' gestation. Although the prenatal diagnosis of cystic hygroma and its association with aneuploidy has been documented in numerous reports, sex chromosome aneuploidy, other than the 45,X karyotype, accounts for only 0.3 per cent of cases.
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3/380. Isolated tetrasomy 8 in minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0).

    tetrasomy 8 as a sole anomaly in hematological disorders is relatively rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 19 such cases have been described in the literature to date. Of them, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 13 (M1, one; M2, three; M4, one; M5, eight), acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) in one, myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS) in 3, polycythemia vera(PV) and myelofibrosis(MF), one case each. Their median survival was 20 weeks. Here, we report the first case of a 29-year-old man with minimally differentiated AML (AML-M0) displaying a tetrasomy 8 clone. immunophenotyping showed positivity with CD33, CD34 and intracellular MPO, but all lymphoid markers tested were negative. Conventional cytogenetics of bone marrow cells showed 84.9% of metaphases with tetrasomy 8 in addition to 15.1% with normal diploidy. However, fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) using a centromeric probe specific for chromosome 8 revealed trisomy 8 in 14.2% of interphase nuclei besides tetrasomy 8 in 82.4%. The patient died four weeks after diagnosis without therapy. In conclusion, these findings suggest that tetrasomy 8 is associated with a heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders and heralds a bad prognosis. It may be a consequence of clonal evolution of trisomy 8.
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4/380. Mosaic trisomy 17 in amniocytes: phenotypic outcome, tissue distribution, and uniparental disomy studies.

    mosaicism for trisomy 17 in amniocyte cultures is a rare finding, whilst postnatal cases are exceptional. In order to gain insight into the possible effects of the distribution of the trisomic line and of uniparental disomy (UPD) on embryofoetal development, we have performed follow-up clinical, cytogenetic and molecular investigations into three newly detected prenatal cases of trisomy 17 mosaicism identified in cultured amniotic fluid. In the first case, the pregnancy ended normally with the birth of a healthy girl, and analysis of newborn lymphocytes and of multiple extra-embryonic tissues was indicative of confined placental mosaicism. The second case was also associated with a normal pregnancy outcome and postnatal development, and only euploid cells were found in peripheral blood after birth. However, maternal isodisomy 17 consequent to a meiosis II error and loss of a chromosome 17 homologue was detected in peripheral lymphocytes postnatally. In the third case, pathological examination after termination of pregnancy showed growth retardation and minor dysmorphisms, and the trisomic line was detected in foetal skin fibroblasts. In addition, biparental derivation of chromosome 17 was demonstrated in the euploid lineage. These results, together with previously reported data, indicate that true amniotic trisomy 17 mosaicism is more commonly of extra-embryonic origin and associated with normal foetal development. Phenotypic consequences may arise when the trisomic line is present in foetal tissues. Case 2 also represents the first observation of maternal UPD involving chromosome 17; the absence of phenotypic anomalies in the child suggests that chromosome 17 is not likely to be subject to imprinting in maternal gametes.
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5/380. Oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma after neuroblastoma: a report of four cases of a distinct clinicopathologic entity.

    Four children who developed oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after neuroblastoma are reported. One patient had multiple, bilateral RCCs. The mean age at time of diagnosis of RCC was 8.8 years (range, 5-13 years). The mean interval between neuroblastoma and RCC was 7.15 years (range, 3.1-11.5 years). The histologic findings of these RCCs did not fit within the spectrum of known renal epithelial neoplasms. Most of the neoplastic cells in all cases had eosinophilic, oncocytoid cytoplasm and were arranged in solid and papillary growth patterns. A subset of cells with reticular cytoplasm was also present. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated keratins 8 and 18 in all neoplasms and keratin 20 in two cases. dna ploidy analysis revealed that two of three neoplasms assessed were aneuploid. Cytogenetic studies revealed 45, XX, add or dup (7)(q32q36) in one neoplasm, and 83-89, XXXX, -1 ,-3, del (3)(q11.1q2?1), der(4)t(4;?22) (q32;q11.2), -14, -22 in a second tumor. Microsatellite polymerase chain reaction analysis detected no abnormalities in one neoplasm and allelic imbalance of chromosomes 2p31-32.2, 8p22, 9p22-24, 13q22, 20q13, and 22q11 in a second tumor. In case 4, two different RCCs excised 6 months apart were analyzed. The initial neoplasm showed allelic imbalance of chromosomes 2q31-32.2, 5q22, 5q31, 10p13-14, 13q22, 14q31, and 20q13. The subsequent neoplasm showed allelic imbalance of chromosomes 3p21.3, 14q31, and 20q13. The common presence of 14q31 and 20q13 abnormalities suggests that these two neoplasms were genetically related. In aggregate, these findings are distinctive, are not found in known types of RCC, and support the morphologic impression that oncocytoid RCC after neuroblastoma is a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
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6/380. Analysis of aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 21, X and Y by multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in a 47,XYY male.

    The frequency of aneuploid sperm was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in a 47,XYY male previously studied by sperm karyotyping. A total of 20,021 sperm were studied: 10,017 by two-colour FISH for chromosomes 13 and 21 and 10,002 by three-colour FISH for the sex chromosomes using chromosome 1 as an autosomal control for diploidy and lack of hybridisation. Results were compared with more than 500,000 sperm from 18 normal men. The frequencies of X-bearing (49.4%) and Y-bearing sperm (49.8%) were not significantly different from 50% as shown in our sperm karyotyping study. There was no significant increase in the frequency of diploid sperm compared with control donors. There was a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 13 (p < 0.0001) and XY disomy (p = 0.0008) compared with control donors. However, since the frequency of disomy was 0.40% for chromosome 13 and 0.55% for XY disomy, it is not surprising that these increases were not discovered previously in our analysis of 75 sperm karyotypes. Our results suggest that the extra y chromosome is eliminated during spermatogenesis in the majority of cells but that there may be a small but significant increase in the frequency of aneuploid sperm in these men.
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7/380. Analysis of the sex chromosome constitution of sperm in men with a 47, XYY mosaic karyotype by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in the sperm of two men with a 47,XYY/46,XY karyotype. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: infertility clinic in a teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): One patient with near normal semen parameters whose wife had a history of miscarriages and one patient with primary infertility and severe oligoasthenozoospermia. INTERVENTION(S): cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes and three-color X/Y/18 fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of sperm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Analysis of sex chromosome disomy and diploidy rates in sperm. RESULT(S): Both patients had a 47,XYY/46,XY karyotype. The hyperdiploidy rate of patient 1 was 19% and that of patient 2 was 90%. The incidence of disomy XY was significantly elevated in both patients compared with the controls (0.23% and 1.02%, respectively, versus 0.10%). The incidence of disomy YY (0.44% versus 0.10%) was increased only in patient 2, as was the incidence of disomy 18 (0.49% versus 0.09%) and the rate of diploidy (0.83% versus 0.13%). The rate of 24,XX sperm in both patients was not different from that in the controls. CONCLUSION(S): patients with a 47,XYY mosaic karyotype may be at risk of producing offspring with a hyperdiploid sex constitution. These patients should have their sperm investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine their particular risks before they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
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8/380. syndrome of microcephaly, Dandy-Walker malformation, and wilms tumor caused by mosaic variegated aneuploidy with premature centromere division (PCD): report of a new case and review of the literature.

    We report a male infant with multiple congenital anomalies and mosaic variegated aneuploidy; a rare cytogenetic abnormality characterized by mosaicism for several different aneuploidies involving many different chromosomes. He had prenatal-onset growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic face, seizures, hypotonia, feeding difficulty, and developmental delay. In addition, he developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Neuroradiological examination revealed Dandy-Walker malformation and hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere and pons. cytogenetic analysis revealed various multiple numerical aneuploidies in blood lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and bone marrow cells, together with premature centromere division (PCD). Peripheral blood chromosome analysis from his parents also showed PCD, but no aneuploid cells. The clinical phenotype and multiple aneuploidies of the patient may be a consequence of the homozygous PCD trait inherited from his parents. Comparison with previously reported cases of multiple aneuploidy suggests that mosaic variegated aneuploidy with PCD may be a clinically recognizable syndrome with major phenotypes being mental retardation, microcephaly, structural brain anomalies (including Dandy-Walker malformation), and possible cancer predisposition.
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9/380. Sex chromosome aneuploidies in sperm of 47,XYY men.

    The sex chromosomal equipment in 26,675 sperm of 47,XYY males was analyzed. A total of 5.78% of the nuclei exhibited sex chromosome hyperhaploidy. Six studies have analyzed the sperm of 10 XYY patients and, although these studies indicated some degree of elimination of the extra y chromosome during spermatogenesis, a certain percentage of XYY germinal cells may also be able to achieve meiosis and produce sperm with gonosomal disomies. All these studies show an increased incidence of gonosomal aneuploidies in sperm, but there are significant discrepancies concerning the extent of these abnormalities. The global frequencies of sperm with an abnormal number of sex chromosomes ranged from 0.578 to 13.91%, depending on the patients. There are several explanations for these discrepancies: differences attributed to fluorescence in situ hybridization methodology, the use of dual or multicolor FISH, recruitment, interindividual variations, and intraindividual variations. This study reports an additional series obtained from another XYY individual and compares and discusses the data on gonosomal hyperhaploidies in sperm of 47 XYY males using in situ hybridization analyses.
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10/380. Complete androgen insensitivity in a 47,XXY patient with uniparental disomy for the X chromosome.

    We describe a unique patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and a 47,XXY karyotype. Androgen receptor assay using cultured pubic skin fibroblasts showed no androgen-binding capacity. sequence analysis of the androgen receptor gene demonstrated two nonsense mutations, one in exon D and one in exon E. Microsatellite marker analysis showed that the patient is homozygous for all five Xq loci examined. The results suggest that the long-arms of the two X chromosomes are identical, i.e., uniparental isodisomy at least for Xq, and carry the same mutations in the androgen receptor gene. This explains how complete androgen insensitivity syndrome occurred in this 47,XXY individual.
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