Cases reported "Aneuploidy"

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1/35. Unilateral aneuploid dedifferentiated acinic cell carcinoma associated with bilateral-low grade diploid acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    A dedifferentiated acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) of the right parotid gland with lymph node metastases occurred in a 36-year-old woman. The tumour was associated with a bilateral well-differentiated AciCC. The two components of this tumour had different (high and low) proliferative activity measured by Mib-1 and different (aneuploid and diploid) DNA content. Despite the presence of a high-grade component, TP53 mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the p53 locus were not detected. Although the follow-up of the patient is very short, the aggressiveness of the tumour is shown by a recurrence in the right parotid within 4 months and by the rapid development of regional metastases.
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2/35. Oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma after neuroblastoma: a report of four cases of a distinct clinicopathologic entity.

    Four children who developed oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after neuroblastoma are reported. One patient had multiple, bilateral RCCs. The mean age at time of diagnosis of RCC was 8.8 years (range, 5-13 years). The mean interval between neuroblastoma and RCC was 7.15 years (range, 3.1-11.5 years). The histologic findings of these RCCs did not fit within the spectrum of known renal epithelial neoplasms. Most of the neoplastic cells in all cases had eosinophilic, oncocytoid cytoplasm and were arranged in solid and papillary growth patterns. A subset of cells with reticular cytoplasm was also present. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated keratins 8 and 18 in all neoplasms and keratin 20 in two cases. DNA ploidy analysis revealed that two of three neoplasms assessed were aneuploid. Cytogenetic studies revealed 45, XX, add or dup (7)(q32q36) in one neoplasm, and 83-89, XXXX, -1 ,-3, del (3)(q11.1q2?1), der(4)t(4;?22) (q32;q11.2), -14, -22 in a second tumor. Microsatellite polymerase chain reaction analysis detected no abnormalities in one neoplasm and allelic imbalance of chromosomes 2p31-32.2, 8p22, 9p22-24, 13q22, 20q13, and 22q11 in a second tumor. In case 4, two different RCCs excised 6 months apart were analyzed. The initial neoplasm showed allelic imbalance of chromosomes 2q31-32.2, 5q22, 5q31, 10p13-14, 13q22, 14q31, and 20q13. The subsequent neoplasm showed allelic imbalance of chromosomes 3p21.3, 14q31, and 20q13. The common presence of 14q31 and 20q13 abnormalities suggests that these two neoplasms were genetically related. In aggregate, these findings are distinctive, are not found in known types of RCC, and support the morphologic impression that oncocytoid RCC after neuroblastoma is a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
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3/35. Complete androgen insensitivity in a 47,XXY patient with uniparental disomy for the x chromosome.

    We describe a unique patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and a 47,XXY karyotype. Androgen receptor assay using cultured pubic skin fibroblasts showed no androgen-binding capacity. sequence analysis of the androgen receptor gene demonstrated two nonsense mutations, one in exon D and one in exon E. Microsatellite marker analysis showed that the patient is homozygous for all five Xq loci examined. The results suggest that the long-arms of the two X chromosomes are identical, i.e., uniparental isodisomy at least for Xq, and carry the same mutations in the androgen receptor gene. This explains how complete androgen insensitivity syndrome occurred in this 47,XXY individual.
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4/35. tetrasomy 9p due to an intrachromosomal triplication of 9p13-p22.

    To date, approximately 30 patients have been described with a tetrasomy 9p, all being caused by the presence of an isochromosome 9p. We now report on a 3-year-old boy with a de novo intrachromosomal triplication of 9p13-p22, resulting in partial tetrasomy 9p. We compared his phenotype with cases of tetrasomy 9p caused by the presence of an extra isochromosome 9p. He has facial anomalies similar to those of cases of tetrasomy 9p, central nervous system abnormalities, and severe psychomotor retardation but no other major congenital anomalies. fluorescence in situ hybridization with region-specific probes showed that the middle repeat of the triplicated part is inverted. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated an involvement of both paternal chromosome 9 homologues in the triplication. This is compatible with either unequal crossing over of three of the four chromatids in paternal meiosis I or with a double crossing over in meiosis I and II (or an early mitotic division).
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5/35. Chromosomal aneuploidy in leukemic blast crisis: a potential source of error in interpretation of bone marrow engraftment analysis by VNTR amplification.

    BACKGROUND: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of polymorphic microsatellite or minisatellite DNA markers has proven to be a fast, sensitive, and specific technique in post-transplantation monitoring of bone marrow engraftment, as well as early detection of residual disease and relapse. Deletion or amplification of chromosomal segments carrying marker loci, as can occur in leukemia and other hematologic malignancies, may result in loss or increased dosage of marker alleles. Examination of these marker alleles by PCR therefore may give aberrant results, which might lead to misinterpretation of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) engraftment studies. methods AND RESULTS: We report a case of chronic myelogenous leukemia treated by BMT. PCR amplification of the minisatellite at the apoB locus on chromosome 2 was used to monitor the donor bone marrow engraftment. The patient experienced relapse in blast crisis with a near-haploid karyotype with loss of recipient-specific apoB allele causing an aberrant PCR result for bone marrow engraftment that mimicked full donor engraftment. CONCLUSIONS: Loss or gain of polymorphic DNA markers because of chromosomal losses or gains in some hematologic malignancies may affect the interpretation of bone marrow engraftment studies by PCR. When choosing polymorphic markers for such studies, it is important to avoid those that will be affected by expected chromosomal alteration, if possible. In addition, any abberant post-transplantation typing should prompt further investigation to rule out the possibility of chromosomal aberration. review of all pertinent laboratory studies is important to avoid misinterpretation of results from a single test for engraftment analysis.
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6/35. Intrauterine growth retardation associated with maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 6 unmasked by congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    We report the first case of maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 6 (UPD6mat) ascertained through congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which arose because of reduction to homozygosity of an autosomal recessive mutation. This case suggests that UPD6mat is associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A case of paternal UPD (involving only the short arm of chromosome 6) ascertained as CAH has previously been reported, but was not stated to have IUGR. Our patient was born with IUGR followed by extraordinarily good catch-up growth. She had a history of a marked lag in motor development. She presented at 2.65 y of age with pubarche of 3 mo duration, clitoral enlargement, and an advanced bone age. Simple virilizing CAH was diagnosed by elevations of plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone. mutation analysis showed that the CAH was due to homozygosity for the 1172N exon 4 mutation. When parental DNA was examined, the mother was found to be heterozygous for the uncommon exon 4 mutation, while the father had no detectable mutations. DNA microsatellite analysis was subsequently performed on the patient and parents using polymorphic markers spanning the entire chromosome 6. Seven markers were informative for inheritance of a single maternal allele and absence of paternal alleles in the proband. Analysis of microsatellite markers from other chromosomes confirmed biparental inheritance at these loci. This combination of findings is diagnostic of UPD6mat. The only other reported case of UPD6mat was discovered serendipitously when genotyped for renal transplantation; this patient had a history of IUGR. Since both cases of UPD6mat had IUGR, the phenotype appears to include IUGR as well as the potential to unmask an autosomal recessive trait.
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7/35. Mosaic tetrasomy 8q: inverted duplication of 8q23.3qter in an analphoid marker.

    We observed an analphoid marker chromosome stable through cell division in a 16-year-old girl with developmental delay, short stature, limb contractures, and ovaries containing multiple cysts. She also developed myasthenia gravis at 15 years. The marker chromosome, present in 75% of metaphases (and in 90% of transformed lymphoblastoid cells), was C-band negative, and had no pan alpha-satellite sequences detectable by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The 8q origin of the marker was determined by use of subtelomeric probes and was confirmed by chromosome 8 painting probes. The marker was shown to be an inversion duplication of 8q when subtelomeric, telomeric, and c-myc FISH probes hybridized to both ends of the marker. The karyotype was 47,XX, inv dup(8)(qter--> q23.3::q23.3-->[neocen]-->qter), resulting in tetrasomy for 8q23.3qter. The parents had normal karyotypes. Centromeric proteins CENP-C and CENP-E were present, but alpha associated centromere protein CENP-B was absent at a position defining a neocentromere.
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8/35. Fibrous tumors in children - a morphologic and interphase cytogenetic analysis of problematic cases.

    We describe and discuss the findings by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of non-random chromosomal gains, in a group of unusual fibrous lesions in children. Nuclear disaggregation was used to prepare slides from eight cases which were hybridized using alpha-satellite enumeration probes for chromosomes 8, 11 and 17. trisomy 8 and 11 were detected in a high percentage of nuclei in cases of congenital/infantile fibrosarcomas (ranging from 45 to 80%), and in a low grade fibrosarcoma in an older child (23%). Only gains of chromosome 17 were detected in a case of infantile fibromatosis (22%). In this study we have found that given the unconventional histopathologic features, the detection of more than one non-random chromosomal gains by FISH, may aid in further defining fibrous tumors in children, and may be useful as an ancillary diagnostic test in the future.
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9/35. Prenatal molecular cytogenetic diagnosis of partial tetrasomy 10p due to neocentromere formation in an inversion duplication analphoid marker chromosome.

    Neocentromeres are fully functional centromeres found on rearranged or marker chromosomes that have separated from endogenous centromeres. Neocentromeres often result in partial tri- or tetrasomy because their formation confers mitotic stability to acentric chromosome fragments that would normally be lost. We describe the prenatal identification and characterization of a de novo supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) containing a neocentromere in a 20-wk fetus by the combined use of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). GTG-banding of fetal metaphases revealed a 47,XY, mar karyotype in 100% of cultured amniocytes; parental karyotypes were both normal. Although sequential tricolor FISH using chromosome-specific painting probes identified a chromosome 10 origin of the marker, a complete panel of chromosome-specific centromeric satellite dna probes failed to hybridize to any portion of the marker. The presence of a neocentromere on the marker chromosome was confirmed by the absence of hybridization of an all-human-centromere alpha-satellite DNA probe, which hybridizes to all normal centromeres, and the presence of centromere protein (CENP)-C, which is associated specifically with active kinetochores. Based on CGH analysis and FISH with a chromosome 10p subtelomeric probe, the marker was found to be an inversion duplication of the distal portion of chromosome 10p. Thus, the proband's karyotype was 47,XY, inv dup(10)(pter-->p14 approximately 15::p14 approximately 15-->neo-->pter), which is the first report of partial tetrasomy 10p resulting from an analphoid marker chromosome with a neocentromere. This study illustrates the use of several molecular strategies in distinguishing centric alphoid markers from neocentric analphoid markers.
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10/35. Partial tetrasomy 12pter-12p12.3 in a girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome: extraordinary finding of an analphoid, inverted duplicated marker.

    cytogenetic analysis in a girl with multiple congenital anomalies indicating Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) showed a supernumerary marker chromosome in 1/76 lymphocytes and 34/75 fibroblast metaphases. GTG-banding pattern was consistent with the chromosomal region 12pter-12q11. While fluorescence-in-situ hybridisation (FISH) with a whole chromosome 12 painting probe confirmed the origin of the marker, a chromosome 12 specific alpha-satellite probe did not hybridise to it. FISH analysis with a specific subtelomeric probe 12p showed hybridisation to both ends of the marker chromosome. High-resolution multicolour-banding (MCB) studies revealed the marker to be a der(12)(pter-->p12.3::p12.3-->pter). Summarising the FISH information, we defined the marker as an inverted duplication of 12pter-12p12.3 leading to partial tetrasomy of chromosome 12p. In skin fibroblasts, cultured at the patient's age of 1 year and 9 years, the marker chromosome was found in similar frequencies, even after several culture passages. Therefore, we consider the marker to have a functional centromere although it lacks detectable centromeric alpha-satellite sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proven analphoid marker of chromosome 12. Molecular genetic studies indicated that this marker is of paternal origin. The finding of partial tetrasomy 12pter-12p12.3 in our PKS patient allows to narrow down the critical region for PKS.
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