Cases reported "Aneuploidy"

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1/43. Sperm analysis in a subfertile male with a Y;16 translocation, using four-color FISH.

    Sperm analysis was performed in a male with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) and a reciprocal t(Y;16) (q11. 21;q24), using four-color FISH. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment in this patient had resulted in the birth of one chromosomally balanced and two chromosomally normal children. To assess the risk of having a chromosomally unbalanced conception after ICSI, morphologically normal spermatozoa were studied with a set of probes allowing detection of all segregation variants. There were 51% normal or balanced sperm cells. The fraction of sperm products resulting from alternate and adjacent I segregation was 87%, 12% were products of 3:1 disjunction, and the other 1% had other types of aneuploidy. If morphologically abnormal cells were also included in the FISH analysis, nearly 90% of all the spermatozoa were unbalanced. We conclude that although the majority of males with a Y/autosome translocation are infertile due to azoospermia, our patient produces sufficient morphologically and chromosomally normal spermatozoa to have chromosomally normal or balanced offspring after ICSI. Assuming that ICSI with an unbalanced spermatozoon from this patient would result in a nonviable embryo in many cases, the combination of in vitro and subsequent in vivo selection probably results in a risk of unbalanced offspring of much less than 50%. Hence, FISH studies on the sperm of translocation carriers are useful for estimating the risk of having unbalanced offspring after ICSI and in understanding the mechanisms underlying infertility in such carriers.
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2/43. Analysis of aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 21, X and Y by multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in a 47,XYY male.

    The frequency of aneuploid sperm was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in a 47,XYY male previously studied by sperm karyotyping. A total of 20,021 sperm were studied: 10,017 by two-colour FISH for chromosomes 13 and 21 and 10,002 by three-colour FISH for the sex chromosomes using chromosome 1 as an autosomal control for diploidy and lack of hybridisation. Results were compared with more than 500,000 sperm from 18 normal men. The frequencies of X-bearing (49.4%) and Y-bearing sperm (49.8%) were not significantly different from 50% as shown in our sperm karyotyping study. There was no significant increase in the frequency of diploid sperm compared with control donors. There was a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 13 (p < 0.0001) and XY disomy (p = 0.0008) compared with control donors. However, since the frequency of disomy was 0.40% for chromosome 13 and 0.55% for XY disomy, it is not surprising that these increases were not discovered previously in our analysis of 75 sperm karyotypes. Our results suggest that the extra y chromosome is eliminated during spermatogenesis in the majority of cells but that there may be a small but significant increase in the frequency of aneuploid sperm in these men.
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3/43. Analysis of the sex chromosome constitution of sperm in men with a 47, XYY mosaic karyotype by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in the sperm of two men with a 47,XYY/46,XY karyotype. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: infertility clinic in a teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): One patient with near normal semen parameters whose wife had a history of miscarriages and one patient with primary infertility and severe oligoasthenozoospermia. INTERVENTION(S): cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes and three-color X/Y/18 fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of sperm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Analysis of sex chromosome disomy and diploidy rates in sperm. RESULT(S): Both patients had a 47,XYY/46,XY karyotype. The hyperdiploidy rate of patient 1 was 19% and that of patient 2 was 90%. The incidence of disomy XY was significantly elevated in both patients compared with the controls (0.23% and 1.02%, respectively, versus 0.10%). The incidence of disomy YY (0.44% versus 0.10%) was increased only in patient 2, as was the incidence of disomy 18 (0.49% versus 0.09%) and the rate of diploidy (0.83% versus 0.13%). The rate of 24,XX sperm in both patients was not different from that in the controls. CONCLUSION(S): patients with a 47,XYY mosaic karyotype may be at risk of producing offspring with a hyperdiploid sex constitution. These patients should have their sperm investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine their particular risks before they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
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4/43. Sex chromosome aneuploidies in sperm of 47,XYY men.

    The sex chromosomal equipment in 26,675 sperm of 47,XYY males was analyzed. A total of 5.78% of the nuclei exhibited sex chromosome hyperhaploidy. Six studies have analyzed the sperm of 10 XYY patients and, although these studies indicated some degree of elimination of the extra y chromosome during spermatogenesis, a certain percentage of XYY germinal cells may also be able to achieve meiosis and produce sperm with gonosomal disomies. All these studies show an increased incidence of gonosomal aneuploidies in sperm, but there are significant discrepancies concerning the extent of these abnormalities. The global frequencies of sperm with an abnormal number of sex chromosomes ranged from 0.578 to 13.91%, depending on the patients. There are several explanations for these discrepancies: differences attributed to fluorescence in situ hybridization methodology, the use of dual or multicolor FISH, recruitment, interindividual variations, and intraindividual variations. This study reports an additional series obtained from another XYY individual and compares and discusses the data on gonosomal hyperhaploidies in sperm of 47 XYY males using in situ hybridization analyses.
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5/43. Analysis of segregation and aneuploidy in two reciprocal translocation carriers, t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) and t(3;9)(p25;q32), by triple-color fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Meiotic segregation patterns of chromosomes 3 and 9 were analyzed in sperm of two translocation carriers (t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) and t(3;9)(p25;q32)) by triple-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric dna probe in addition to two centromeric probes. The frequencies of each sperm product resulting from alternate or adjacent I, adjacent II and 3:1 segregation in a t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) translocation carrier were 88.35%, 5.44% and 5.94%, respectively. On the other hand, the frequencies of each sperm product in a t(3;9)(p25;q32) translocation carrier were 89.23%, 6.02% and 4.48%, respectively. Of all the sperm products, the frequency of normal or chromosomally balanced sperm in a t(3;9)(q26.2;q32) and a t(3;9)(p25;q32) were 52.49% and 47.25%, respectively. The frequencies of each sperm product resulting from various segregations were different between both carriers and significantly deviated from the expected frequencies. Additional dual-color and triple-color FISH were performed to analyze aneuploidy rates for chromosomes 12, 17, 18, X and Y in order to detect any interchromosomal effect; no evidence of an interchromosomal effect was found.
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6/43. Assessment of sex chromosome aneuploidy in sperm nuclei from 47,XXY and 46,XY/47,XXY males: comparison with fertile and infertile males with normal karyotype.

    Sex chromosome aneuploidy was assessed in spermatozoa from a 47,XXY male and a 46,XY/47,XXY male using three colour fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and compared with two control groups. The first group included subjects of proven fertility and the second infertile males with normal constitutional karyotype. The frequencies of XX and YY disomic, XY hyperhaploid and diploid spermatozoa were significantly increased in the 47,XXY male compared to subjects from the two control groups (P < 0.0001). For the 46,XY/47,XXY sample, the same results were observed, except that the incidence of YY disomic spermatozoa did not differ significantly from the rate obtained in infertile patients. The frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidy did not differ significantly between the 47,XXY and the 46,XY/47,XXY males, except for XX disomic sperm nuclei which was higher in the 47,XXY patient. The frequency of chromosome 12 disomy was also increased in the two XXY individuals (0.42 and 0.49% respectively; P < 0.0001). The meiotic abnormalities observed in the two XXY patients arose through segregation errors in XY germ cells. The increased number of meiotic non-disjunctions observed in the germ cells of infertile males may be a common feature of the deficient oligo- or azoospermic testis. patients with Klinefelter's syndrome with oligozoospermia have an increased risk of both sex chromosome and autosome aneuploidy in their progeny.
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7/43. Human male infertility: chromosome anomalies, meiotic disorders, abnormal spermatozoa and recurrent abortion.

    Human male infertility is often related to chromosome abnormalities. In chromosomally normal infertile males, the rates of chromosome 21 and sex chromosome disomy in spermatozoa are increased. Higher incidences of trisomy 21 (seldom of paternal origin) and sex chromosome aneuploidy are also found. XXY and XYY patients produce increased numbers of XY, XX and YY spermatozoa, indicating an increased risk of production of XXY, XYY and XXX individuals. Since XXYs can reproduce using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), this could explain the slight increase of sex chromosome anomalies in ICSI series. Carriers of structural reorganizations produce unbalanced spermatozoa, and risk having children with duplications and/or deficiencies. In some cases, this risk is considerably lower or higher than average. These patients also show increased diploidy, and a higher risk of producing diandric triploids. Meiotic disorders are frequent in infertile males, and increase with severe oligoasthenozoospemia (OA) and/or high follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. These patients produce spermatozoa with autosomal and sex chromosome disomies, and diploid spermatozoa. Their contribution to recurrent abortion depends on the production of trisomies, monosomies and of triploids. The most frequent sperm chromosome anomaly in infertile males is diploidy, originated by either meiotic mutations or by a compromised testicular environment.
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8/43. PCR analysis of Y-chromosome sequences in a 45,X male patient and a review of the literature.

    The 45,X karyotype is usually associated with turner syndrome, while male phenotype is exceptional. The authors report a 45,X male patient with normal external genitalia and sex behavior, but who was azoospermic. He had a normally developed musculature and pilose distribution, testicular volume of 15 mL and no gynecomastia but clinical stigmata of turner syndrome (short stature, short neck and 4th metacarpal bones) and azoospermia. Hormonal plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, and gonadotrophins were within the normal range as was the response of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (30 and 60 min) after 100 microg iv of LH-RH administration. Testicular biopsy could not be performed. karyotype was 45,X without evidence of mosaicism. polymerase chain reaction of genomnic dna studied with 12 different sequences of y chromosome revealed only the presence of SRY gene (testis determining factor). It is possible that SRY/autosomal translocation had occurred in this patient. The study of 45,X male should be of great value in elucidating the complex mechanisms involved in normal male sex differentiation.
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9/43. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of meiotic chromosome segregation in a 47,XYY male and a review of the literature.

    The frequencies of aneuploid and diploid sperm were determined in a 47,XYY male using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and compared with those from 10 control donors. A total of 30,078 sperm from the patient was scored, 15,044 by two-color FISH for chromosomes 13 and 21, and 15,034 by three-color FISH for the sex chromosomes using chromosome 1 as an internal autosomal control for diploidy and lack of hybridization. The frequencies of X-bearing (49.73%) and Y-bearing sperm (49.46%) in control males were not significantly different from the expected 50% (chi(2)-test for goodness of fit). The ratio of 24,X (50.60%) to 24, Y sperm (48.35%) in the patient, however, was significantly different from the controls (P = 0.0144, chi(2)-test for independence) and from the expected 1:1 ratio (P = 0.0055, chi(2)-test for goodness of fit). There was no significant increase in the frequency of diploid sperm when compared with the controls (chi(2)-test for independence). Significantly increased frequencies were found for 24,YY (0.07% vs. 0.02%, P = 0.0009) and 24,XY (0.44% vs. 0.29%, P = 0.0025), but not for 24,XX (0.05% vs. 0.05%, P > 0. 05), 24, 13 (0.07% vs. 0.07%, P > 0.05) or 24, 21 sperm (0.21% vs. 0. 18%, P > 0.05) in the 47,XYY male when compared with control donors (chi(2)-test for independence). Our results support the theory that loss of the extra y chromosome occurs during spermatogenesis in most cells. In this XYY patient there was a significant increase in the frequency of sperm with sex chromosomal abnormalities but no suggestion of an inter-chromosomal effect on autosomes. All 3-color FISH studies in the literature demonstrate a significantly increased risk of gonosomal aneuploidy in XYY males, with the risk being on the order of 1%.
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10/43. Interchromosomal effects for chromosome 21 in carriers of structural chromosome reorganizations determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization on sperm nuclei.

    We have used dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on decondensed sperm heads from four carriers of structural chromosome reorganizations, viz. t(3;15), t(Y;7), t(13;22) and inv(9), to assess the possible existence of an interchromosomal effect (ice) on the segregation of chromosome 21. In the carriers of t(Y;7), t(13;22) and inv(9), all results were within the limits described in controls. A highly significant increase (P<0.0001) of disomy 21 (1.90% v 0.37%), which could be considered as a positive ice, was observed in the t(3;15) carrier. Significantly higher percentages (P<0.0001) of diploid sperm (5.71% v. 0.27%) were also observed in this patient. Our results suggests that the occurrence of an ice may depend on the reorganization and on the chromosome and chromosome regions involved, resulting in a particular meiotic behaviour (presence of unsynapsed regions, preferential meiotic configurations) that could lead to the observed increase in chromosome 21 disomies. Further studies with this technical approach in a wide range of structural reorganizations could help to elucidate the actual occurrence of ICEs.
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