Cases reported "Aneuploidy"

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11/94. clonal evolution from trisomy into tetrasomy of chromosome 8 associated with the development of acute myeloid leukemia from myelodysplastic syndrome.

    tetrasomy 8, though rare, is usually associated with trisomy 8, a far more common chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Yet the clonal relationship between trisomy 8 and tetrasomy 8 in the cases with these chromosomal abnormalities has been unclear. Here, we report a case of a 17-year-old male, diagnosed as having a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Chromosome analysis showed the presence of trisomy 8. Five years later, he developed overt AML exhibiting tetrasomy 8 only. After chemotherapy, the blast cells in the bone marrow decreased to 3.4%, and the karyotype showed trisomy 8 alone. fluorescence in situ hybridization using a probe specific for chromosome 8 showed that the percentages of cells exhibiting 2/ 3 /4 signals were 7.8/89.2/2.0 at the MDS stage, 20.5/36.1/41.0 when overt AML developed and 24.0/72.1/2.4 after chemotherapy. These results suggested that tetrasomy 8 is derived from the AML clone, possibly evolved from the MDS clone with trisomy 8. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed case report of clonal evolution from trisomy 8 into tetrasomy 8 associated with the development of AML from MDS.
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12/94. Meiotic origin of trisomy in neoplasms: evidence in a case of erythroleukaemia.

    Trisomic cells in neoplasms may represent abnormal clones originated from a tissue-confined mosaicism, and arise therefore by a meiotic error. We report on a 16-month-old child with erythroleukaemia (AML-M6), whose marrow karyotype at onset was 48,XX,del(13)(q12q14),del(14)(q22q32), 21, 21. The parental origin of the supernumerary chromosomes 21 was investigated by comparing 10 polymorphic loci scattered along the whole chromosome on the patient's marrow and her parents' leukocytes. Three loci were informative for the presence of three alleles, two of which were of maternal origin; two further loci showed a maternal allele of higher intensity. lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts showed a normal karyotype, and molecular analysis on leukocytes at remission, buccal smear and urinary sediment cells consistently showed only one maternal allele, whereas neonatal blood from Guthrie spot showed two maternal alleles as in the marrow. An accurate clinical re-evaluation confirmed a normal phenotype. Our results indicate that tetrasomy 21 arose from a marrow clone with trisomy 21 of meiotic origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence that supernumerary chromosomes in neoplastic clones may in fact be present due to a meiotic error. This demonstrates that a tissue-confined constitutional mosaicism for a trisomy may indeed represent the first event in multistep carcinogenesis.
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = trisomy
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13/94. Gastric choriocarcinoma shows characteristics of adenocarcinoma and gestational choriocarcinoma: a comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

    The authors report two cases of the rare primary gastric choriocarcinoma. These tumors showed an overwhelming predominance of cytotrophoblast- and syncytiotrophoblast-like tumor cells that were positive for beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, with small foci of glandular differentiation. Beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin was also detected serologically in one patient. comparative genomic hybridization study was performed on one specimen. Copy number gains of chromosomes 12, 17, 20, 22, and X, together with losses on 18q, were the major findings. Except for the gain of chromosome 12, which is known to be uncommon in primary gastric adenocarcinoma but frequently associated with choriocarcinoma, the remaining genomic imbalances were among the most common comparative genomic hybridization findings reported in primary gastric adenocarcinoma. fluorescence in situ hybridization on paraffin sections of both specimens confirmed the presence of polysomy 17 and trisomy 12. These results suggest that primary gastric choriocarcinoma genetically possesses characteristics of both adenocarcinoma and gestational choriocarcinoma. The authors believe this is the first interphase cytogenetics study on this rare tumor, and that the results support the theory that gastric choriocarcinoma arises from alternate differentiation pathways of adenocarcinoma.
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14/94. Malignant teratoma of the thyroid with primitive neuroepithelial and mesenchymal sarcomatous components.

    A 15-year-old black girl had a near total resection of a malignant thyroid teratoma with bilateral nodal involvement and mediastinal extension. A predominant neuroepithelial pattern had ependymal rosettes and mitoses, stained for neuron-specific enolase, neuron-specific B tubulin, and synaptophysin. A malignant spindle cell component stained for smooth-muscle actin, muscle actin, and to a lesser extent S-100. Loose myxoid tissue resembled primitive cartilage. Epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin identified epithelial foci. chromogranin a, MIC2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stains were negative. There was focal anaplasia. dna ploidy by laser scanning cytometry was 1.2. The tumor from the left and right thyroid lobes exhibited trisomy 8, the right also had hyperdiploid cell lines. She was treated with aggressive combination chemotherapy and radiation. Presently there is no residual disease 16 months after diagnosis. Malignant thyroid teratoma is an aggressive tumor, with 15 of 27 reported patients dying 2 weeks to 3 years after diagnosis. survivors have been treated with total or subtotal resection, combination chemotherapy with agents effective in the treatment of germ cell tumors as well as sarcomas, and radiation for either recurrent or residual disease. The heterologous elements, lacking MIC2 staining and t(11;22), support the diagnosis of malignant teratoma rather than a neuroepithelial tumor. trisomy 8 is the first cytogenetic abnormality described in malignant thyroid teratoma. Therapy should be tailored to the management of all transformed histologies.
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keywords = trisomy
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15/94. Chromosome 15 aneuploidy in the sperm and conceptus of a sibling with variable familial expression of round-headed sperm syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize rates of chromosome aneuploidy in sperm from three siblings, one of whom had an IVF/ICSI conceptus with trisomy 15. DESIGN: Blind evaluation of the sperm chromosome aneuploidy rates, semen quality, and sperm ultrastructure. SETTING: IVF clinic and university-based andrology research laboratory. PATIENT(S): Three brothers, two of whom underwent infertility evaluation and therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): semen from three siblings was coded and blindly evaluated for standard world health organization semen quality variables and sperm ultrastructure. Sperm were decondensed and hybridized with fluorescent probes specific for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 15, 18, and 21, then evaluated microscopically to determine the aneuploidy rate for those chromosomes. RESULT(S): Two siblings had increased round-headed morphology on standard morphology evaluation, which was confirmed using electron microscopy. The sperm aneuploidy rate was significantly increased for chromosome 15 in sibling 1, the father of a conceptus with trisomy 15. aneuploidy rates were also slightly increased for chromosomes X, Y, and 18 in sibling 1. CONCLUSION(S): This is the second report of increased sperm chromosome aneuploidy in infertile patients with round-headed sperm. Although ICSI is successful in treating this syndrome, the risk for aneuploidy of the conceptus may be increased. Other studies have reported an increased incidence of sperm chromosome aneuploidy in some infertile patients, but this is the first report of aneuploidy in both the sperm and conceptus of a patient undergoing IVF/ICSI.
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16/94. Selective termination of aneuploidy utilizing rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization detection techniques.

    Twin pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology with a euploid fetus and a coexisting aneuploid co-twin constitutes a conflicting situation; therefore, it is important for the genetic constitution of each co-twin to be diagnosed accurately and promptly for parental genetic counseling and subsequent aggressive management. A 35-year-old woman, gravida 1, with a 2-year history of infertility, presented bilateral fallopian tubal obstruction at her infertility workups, for which she received in vitro fertilization; subsequently she conceived a twin pregnancy. She underwent genetic amniocentesis at 16 weeks' gestation, as indicated by an advanced maternal age. Presented with the diagnosis of twin pregnancy with discordancy for trisomy 21, a rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for aneuploidy mapping was applied for subsequent abdominal selective fetal reduction. The FISH technique facilitates the rapid analysis of uncultured amniocytes. Normal (disomic) and trisomic samples can be distinguished clearly and rapidly for subsequent selective fetocide. The FISH technique is an important tool in prenatal diagnosis and clinical applications.
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keywords = trisomy
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17/94. Hepatosplenic gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma with isochromosome 7q, translocation t(7;21), and tetrasomy 8 in a 9-year-old girl.

    The authors report a child younger than age 15 years with a rare hepatosplenic gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma, which is highly aggressive and primarily seen in young men. A 9-year-old girl presented with thrombocytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. bone marrow analysis revealed a metastatic pleomorphic lymphoma of peripheral T-cell phenotype, with rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gamma/delta and expression of CD3 and CD16/56. Instead of the previously reported primary, nonrandom, chromosomal abnormalities, isochromosome 7q and trisomy 8, this patient had four copies each of chromosome 7q, including isochromosome 7[i(7)(q10)] and der(21)t(7;21), as well as chromosome 8. This entity needs to be considered in women and children with lymphoma. Conventional therapy appears to be inadequate for cure.
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18/94. Partial trisomy for the long arms of chromosome no. 5 due to insertion and further 'aneusomie de recombinaison'.

    Five members of a family with a balanced insertion (1;5)(q32;q11q22) are presented. The daughter of one of them shows multiple malformations and a partial trisomy for the long arms of chromosome No. 5 (5q11 to 5q22 segment) resulting from a 'aneusomie de recombinaison' in her mother. The propositus' karyotype is 46,XX,rec(1;5)ins (1;5)(q32;q11q22). This case is the first reported example of an insertion between two chromosomes followed by 'aneusomie de recombinaison'. It also is the first reported case of trisomy invovling the long arms of chromosome No. 5.
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ranking = 0.67507283478978
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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19/94. tetrasomy 12p--unusual presentation in CVS.

    CVS direct preparations usually achieve limited resolution and are better at detecting numerical rather than structural abnormalities. A CVS direct preparation analyzed using G-banding revealed a 47,XY, G karyotype in 5 of 11 cells and was reported as mosaic for trisomy 21. Subsequent analysis of the CVS culture found only normal male cells. amniocentesis revealed both normal male cells and cells with an extra F-group chromosome. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified this chromosome to be an isochromosome from the short arm of chromosome 12 [i(12)(p10)]. The amniocyte karyotype was reported as 47,XY, i(12)(p10)[12]/46,XY[8].ish i(12)(p10)(wcp12 ), which is associated with Pallister-Killian syndrome. Reexamination of the CVS direct preparation by FISH with a chromosome 12 centromere probe confirmed the karyotype of this tissue to be 47,XY, mar[5]/46,XY[6].nuc ish 12cen(D12Z3 x 3)/12cen(D12Z3 x 2). Thus, multiple studies, including amniocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, may be required to fully and accurately evaluate abnormalities detected by CVS. This case also indicates that mosaicism for supernumerary isochromosomes may have a complex origin.
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keywords = trisomy
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20/94. Two unique patients with trisomy 18 mosaicism and molecular marker studies.

    We report two unusual patients with trisomy 18 mosaicism presenting with minor anomalies and failure to thrive in the first year of life. Chromosome analysis showed trisomy 18 in 30/30 peripheral blood lymphocytes in both children. Analysis of skin fibroblasts in the first child showed normal female chromosomes in 30/30 cells, and the fibroblast karyotype in the second child showed mosaicism for tetrasomy 18p, trisomy 18, and normal female chromosomes (karyotype 47,XX, i(18)(p10)[47]/47,XX, 18[9] /46,XX[4]). trisomy 18 commonly results from nondisjunction at maternal meiosis II (MII). Nondisjunction at maternal MII has also been postulated to be the initial step in the formation of tetrasomy 18p. In our second case, the additional chromosome 18 was the result of maternal nondisjunction at MII, consistent with this hypothesis. In the first case, nondisjunction at maternal meiosis I (MI) was responsible for the extra chromosome 18.
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keywords = trisomy
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