Cases reported "Aneurysm, Dissecting"

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1/350. Percutaneous fenestration of the aortic dissection membrane in malperfusion syndrome.

    We present two cases of malperfusion syndrome due to aortic dissection type-B. A supra-renal blind sac phenomenon resulted in renal failure and absent femoral pulses in both patients. Additionally, one patient suffered from spinal cord ischemia, the other from severe abdominal pain. By interventional techniques, catheter perforation of the blind sac was achieved. The resulting re-entries were enlarged with a balloon catheter. Distal perfusion without pressure gradients was restored by this technique in both patients and resulted in complete relief of symptoms. Percutaneous fenestration of the aortic dissection membrane may be an alternative to operative treatment in malperfusion syndrome.
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2/350. Typical presentation of intramural aortic haemorrhage (IAH) with evidence of intimal tear at MRI and angiography.

    A typical appearance of IAH was evidenced by CT and TEE in a 56-year-old hypertensive female suspected of developping classical acute aortic dissection (AAD). Further examination with MRI and aortography showed unequivocally the presence of an intimal tear in the aortic arch. This coexistence of intimal tear has never been evidenced preoperatively in patients with IAH. This observation demonstrates at the outset that IAH is part of the spectrum of AAD.
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3/350. Type A aortic dissection involving a right-sided aortic arch.

    We report a rare case of a 39-year-old man with type A aortic dissection involving a right-sided aortic arch with the symptom of vascular ring. Computed tomography scanning and angiography were performed to define the extent of the dissection and the anatomy of the branching vessels. The ascending aorta was replaced through a median sternotomy and right thoracotomy using a hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass associated with selective cerebral perfusion and partial circulatory arrest, and his symptom of vascular ring disappeared postoperatively.
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4/350. Surgical treatment for ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms.

    We analyze 20 cases of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms and discuss the best choices for the surgical procedure. The preoperative Hunt and Kosnik grade was I in nine cases, Ia in four cases, II in three cases, III in three cases, and IV in one case. Rebleeding occurred in six cases, in four cases within 24 hours after the initial bleeding, and in every case within 6 days. In two cases surgery was performed within 3 days after the initial bleeding, in two cases within 4 to 7 days, in 16 cases after more than 7 days. A total of 22 operations were performed in the 20 patients (coating in 12, trapping in 6, proximal clipping of the vertebral artery in 2, clipping of the bleeding point in 2). A case of proximal clipping rebled 32 days after the operation and subsequently died. Both cases of clipping of the bleeding point were reoperated because of rebleeding and a slipped clip, respectively. All cases in which trapping or coating was performed resulted in a good outcome. Trapping is the most reliable method of preventing rebleeding. Coating or proximal clipping is an optional procedure, but cannot always prevent rebleeding because of the continuing circulation.
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5/350. Endovascular treatment of carotid dissecting aneurysms.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cervical arterial dissection is a well-recognised cause for acute ischaemic stroke. Dissecting aneurysms commonly occur in the affected vessels contributing to the clinical presentation. Persistence of these aneurysms may provide a source of future embolic events as well as causing local symptoms or even be at risk of spontaneous rupture. methods: We describe 4 patients with traumatic internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections with aneurysm formation at the skull base. Three of the 4 patients still had carotid aneurysms on follow-up investigations and so underwent endovascular procedures using stenting and coil techniques. The carotid aneurysm resolved spontaneously in the fourth patient. RESULTS: The endovascular procedures resulted in significant reduction or obliteration of the flow within the carotid aneurysms with restoration of the true lumen diameter in the adjacent ICA in all 3 patients. No perioperative complications were experienced except for transient headache in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with persistent aneurysms the exact risk of subsequent ischaemic events remains unknown and prospective long-term studies are needed to ascertain this risk. If recurrent stroke rates are found to be high, then carotid stenting (with or without coil insertion) is a feasible invasive approach which could be considered in these patients.
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6/350. Acute traumatic dissection and blunt rupture of the thoracic descending aorta: A case report.

    Rupture of the thoracic aorta following blunt trauma is increasing in incidence and remains a highly lethal injury. Blunt traumatic rupture and acute dissection of the thoracic aorta is very rare. A 50-year-old man involved in a motor vehicle accident on March 3, 1998 was admitted to our hospital one and a half hours following the accident. On admission, he was alert and his hemodynamics were stable. Chest roentgenogram demonstrated a widened mediastinum and multiple left-sided rib fractures. Enhanced chest CT revealed a periaortic hematoma just distal to the isthmus, dissection of the descending thoracic aorta and mediastinal hematoma. With the diagnosis of thoracic aortic rupture and acute DeBakey type IIIB dissection, an emergency operation was performed. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram showed a mobile intimal flap and diminished caliber of the proximal descending aorta. Disruption and dissection of the descending thoracic aorta were found. Prosthetic graft interposition was accomplished with the aid of left atrium-left femoral artery bypass using a centrifugal pump and heparin-coated circuits and a blood collection device for blood conservation. The weak dissected aortic wall was glued and reapproximated with Gelatine-Resorcine-Formol glue. The postoperative course was uneventful.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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7/350. Dissecting aortic aneurysm complicated with acute disseminated intravascular coagulation: case report.

    Acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a rare complication of aortic aneurysm with or without dissection. We describe an 88-year-old man who presented with severe hemorrhagic diathesis and a pulsating abdominal mass. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm with thrombus formation, and his coagulation profile showed the features of acute DIC. After he had received blood component therapy, including fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate concentrates, and intravenous heparin infusion (10,000 U/day), the bleeding diathesis and coagulopathy improved. An aneurysmectomy was performed smoothly without excessive bleeding. Coagulation parameters returned to normal after surgery. Dissecting aortic aneurysm should be considered as a possible etiology of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation, even it occurs in rare situations. Surgical intervention is still the main strategy to normalize coagulopathy. Bleeding diathesis must be corrected before surgery in order to prevent massive intraoperative bleeding.
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keywords = operative
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8/350. The spectrum of aortic complications after heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The connection between the donor and the recipient aorta is a potential source of early and late complications as a result of infection, compliance mismatch, and technical and hemodynamic factors. Moreover, the abrupt change in systolic pressure after heart transplantation involves the entire thoracic aorta in the risk of aneurysm formation. The aim of this study was to analyze the types of aortic complications encountered in our heart transplantation series and to discuss etiology, diagnostic approach, and modes of treatment. methods: Of the 442 patients having orthotopic heart transplantation and the 11 patients having heterotopic heart transplantation at our center, 9 (2%) sustained complications involving the thoracic aorta. These 9 patients were divided into four groups according to the aortic disease: acute aortic rupture (2 patients); infective pseudoaneurysm (3 patients); true aneurysm and dissection of native aorta (2 patients); and aortic dissection after heterotopic heart transplantation (2 patients). Surgical intervention was undertaken in 8. RESULTS: Five (83%) of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment for noninfective complications survived the operation, and 4 are long-term survivors. One patient who underwent a Bentall procedure 71/2 years after heterotopic heart transplantation died in the perioperative period of low-output syndrome secondary to underestimated chronic rejection of the graft. One patient with pseudoaneurysm survives without surgical treatment but died several years later of cardiac arrest due to chronic rejection. Both patients operated on for evolving infective pseudoaneurysm died in the perioperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Infective pseudoaneurysms of the aortic anastomosis are associated with a significant mortality. In noninfective complications, an aggressive surgical approach offers good long-term results. The possibility of retransplantation in spite of complex surgical repair should be considered in the late follow-up after heart transplantation, due to the increasing incidence of chronic rejection.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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9/350. The formation of two layers detectable by intraoperative echocardiography is a reliable predictor of late thrombosis within the false lumen of a dissected aorta.

    The subjects consisted of one patient with chronic type A and three patients with chronic type B aortic dissection, who underwent replacement of an aorta obliterating distal false lumen. After the repair, the formation of two layers was detected by direct scanning echocardiography within the false lumen even during heparinization. In all cases, postoperative computed tomography confirmed complete thrombosis of the false lumen. The formation of two layers was considered to be a reliable predictor of late thrombosis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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10/350. Management of severe acute pancreatitis with a somatostatin analog in a patient undergoing surgery for dissecting thoracic aneurysm: report of a case.

    A patient who was admitted to our hospital to undergo surgery for a dissecting thoracic aneurysm suffered preoperatively from severe acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocysts. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated the presence of new fluid collection around the cyst with the absence of pancreatic necrosis. He was given a somatostatin analog (sandostatin), which was effective in decreasing the abdominal symptoms, leukocyte counts, and the serum C-reactive/protein level. A CT scan revealed that the pancreatic pseudocyst and peripancreatic fluid collection had disappeared. Although somatostatin has been reported to be ineffective for acute pancreatitis with necrosis, pancreatitis without necrosis may regress after treatment with sandostatin. This is probably due to its suppressive effect on the exocrine function, thus resulting in a decrease of pancreatic juice infiltration.
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