Cases reported "Aneurysm, Dissecting"

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1/49. Aortic dissection in young patients with chronic hypertension.

    We describe four patients aged 14 to 21 years who developed acute aortic dissection. In three of the four patients, the course was fatal, despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention. All four patients had sustained systemic hypertension related to chronic renal insufficiency. The patients had no other identifiable risk factors for aortic dissection, including congenital cardiovascular disease, advanced atherosclerosis, vasculitis, trauma, pregnancy, or family history of aortic dissection. Although aortic dissection is rare in individuals younger than 40 years of age, young patients with sustained systemic hypertension are at increased risk for this serious and often fatal condition. physicians must be aware of this rare complication of hypertension and consider aortic dissection in the differential diagnosis of unusual chest, abdominal, and back pain in hypertensive children, adolescents, and young adults.
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keywords = vascular disease
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2/49. Crack-cocaine-associated aortic dissection in early pregnancy--a case report.

    Even though uncommon in pregnancy, aortic dissection is a potentially catastrophic vascular complication, occurring mainly in the late stages of pregnancy. Vascular events, including aortic dissection are recognized complications of crack-cocaine use. The authors report a case of aortic dissection in early pregnancy related to crack-cocaine use. They believe that the combined effects of pregnancy and crack cocaine on the vasculature create the requisite milieu potentiating such catastrophic events as aortic dissection. This paper reviews the possible underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and the available diagnostic, therapeutic, and management options.
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ranking = 23.316883238004
keywords = vascular complication
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3/49. A giant dissecting aneurysm mimicking serpentine aneurysm angiographically. Case report and review of the literature.

    Intracranial dissecting and giant serpentine aneurysms are rare vascular anomalies. Their precise cause has not yet been completely clarified, and the radiological appearance of such lesions can be different in each case according to the effect of hemodynamic stress on a pathologic vessel wall. For berry aneurysms, available evidence overwhelmingly favors their causation by hemodynamically induced degenerative vascular disease and there is an obvious need to determine the hemodynamic parameters most likely to induce the precursor atrophic lesions. In this study, a case of a giant dissecting aneurysm angiographically mimicking serpentine aneurysm of the right ophthalmic artery is reported and the relevant literature is reviewed to investigate the pathological characteristics and pathogenesis of this lesion. In the present case, radiological investigation of the lesion suggested a serpentine aneurysm, but the diagnosis was corrected to dissecting aneurysm subsequent to the pathological examination of the resected aneurysm. A giant dissecting aneurysm angiographically mimicking serpentine aneurysm and developing as the result of a circumferential dissection located between the internal elastic lamina and media is of particular interest when the etiology of these aneurysms is considered. To our knowledge this is the first report on intracranial dissecting aneurysm mimicking serpentine aneurysm angiographically. Our case illustrates the importance of careful serial section studies for a better understanding of the vascular pathology underlying the processes involved in intracranial serpentine aneurysms. We conclude that serpentine, dissecting and berry aneurysms may all arise by way of similar pathophysiological mechanisms.
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keywords = vascular disease
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4/49. Coronary artery aneurysms, aortic dissection, and hypertension secondary to primary aldosteronism: a rare triad. A case report.

    Primary aldosteronism is a relatively uncommon etiology of hypertension. plasma renin activity is suppressed in the majority of the cases but not always. plasma renin activity has been associated with increased vascular injury. The occurrence of vascular complications has rarely been reported with low plasma renin activity. The authors report a case of long-standing secondary hypertension due to primary aldosteronism with coronary artery aneurysms and aortic dissection. Diagnosing is important, for therapeutic intervention can be curative.
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ranking = 23.316883238004
keywords = vascular complication
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5/49. Painless aortic dissection presenting as hoarseness of voice: cardiovocal syndrome: Ortner's syndrome.

    Most of the neurological manifestations of the aortic dissection are due to neuronal ischemia secondary to either extension of the dissection process into a branch artery, or compression of an artery by the false lumen of the dissecting aortic hematoma. However, the enlarging false lumen may directly compress on an adjacent nerve, causing neuronal injury resulting in neurological symptoms. This may particularly take place when a distal intimal tear does not decompress the false lumen, resulting in formation of an expanding blind pouch. About 10% of aortic dissections are painless and may present with symptoms secondary to the complications of the dissection. Although cardiovocal syndrome, or Ortner's syndrome (hoarseness of voice due to involvement of recurrent laryngeal nerve in cardiovascular diseases) has been described with aortic dissection, it has not been reported as an initial presenting feature of this disorder. This report describes the first case of painless aortic dissection presenting with hoarseness of voice, the cardiovocal syndrome. The hoarseness remained the only symptom throughout the entire course of the disease. The aortic dissection was not suspected initially. During surgical exploration, the recurrent laryngeal nerve was found compressed by the false lumen at the level of aortic arch. Aortic root replacement was performed successfully, resulting in complete resolution of the hoarseness. The neurological manifestations of aortic dissection, and the cardiovocal syndrome, are discussed.
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keywords = vascular disease
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6/49. Ten years' experience of aortic aneurysm associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    BACKGROUND: aortic aneurysm is a rare but life-threatening cardiovascular complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic clinical features and the pathological mechanism of aneurysmal formation in these patients. methods: among 429 patients operated on for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) during the past 10 years, five cases with SLE were treated surgically. Their clinical data were reviewed, and the resected aneurysmal wall of the five patients was also examined histologically. RESULTS: the mean age of the patients with SLE was 55 years, which was statistically younger than that of the other patients (mean 77 years, s.d. 7.9, p <0.05). They had received long-term corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of SLE for a mean of 23 years. Histologically, destruction of the medial elastic lamina was characteristic. Four patients had no complications in the postoperative follow-up period (mean 4 years), while the remaining patient died of rupture of a dissecting aneurysm two years after operation. CONCLUSION: prolonged steroid therapy may play a major role in accelerating atherosclerosis, which can result in aortic aneurysmal enlargement, possibly together with primary aortic wall involvement and/or vasculitic damage in patients with SLE.
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ranking = 23.316883238004
keywords = vascular complication
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7/49. Dissecting aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Dissecting aneurysms frequently involve the vertebral arteries and their branches, but those exclusively on the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica) represent only 24 cases in the literature, including the four cases discussed in this article. The clinical diagnosis lacks pathognomonic signs or symptoms, with presentations such as subarachnoid haemorrhage or ischaemia of the brain stem or the cerebellum, and the management is controversial. Wrapping, clipping and embolisation of the aneurysms were tried in this series with different outcomes. Exclusion of the pathological segment should be performed, as shown by rebleeding from our case which was wrapped or by progression of the vascular disease in cases where treatment was delayed. Surgical or endovascular occlusion are well tolerated in our cases and in those reported from the literature, which implies the absence of normal perforating branches to the brain stem arising from the proximal dissected segment of the pica and a good collateral circulation. A revascularisation procedure using the occipital artery can be performed in order to prevent infarction if an endovascular test occlusion is not tolerated.
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keywords = vascular disease
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8/49. Ruptured dissecting aneurysm in bilateral iliac arteries caused by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: report of a case.

    ehlers-danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited disorder of connective tissue characterized by hyperextensible skin, hypermobile joints, and abnormalities of the cardiovascular system. Ten types and several subtypes of EDS have so far been recognized based on genetic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics. The spectrum of the disorder varies from mild to life-threatening vascular complications. EDS type IV is a particularly dangerous form with a lethal spontaneous rupture of the major arteries and aneurysmal formation. We present herein a case of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm in the bilateral iliac arteries caused by EDS type IV. A previously healthy 33-year-old man without any physical features of this connective tissue disorder experienced a metachronous vascular rupture two times. Successful synthetic bypass grafting was performed with great difficulty. The diagnosis of EDS type IV was made afterwards based on an electrophoresis analysis of a skin biopsy specimen which revealed a lack of type III collagen. Surgical intervention in cases of arterial complications in EDS type IV patients have been reported to be both difficult and frequently unsuccessful. The early clinical recognition of this syndrome is therefore of great importance due to the hazards of such surgical therapies.
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ranking = 23.316883238004
keywords = vascular complication
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9/49. Vascular complications in anterior thoracolumbar spinal reconstruction.

    OBJECT: Anterior approaches in thoracic and lumbar spinal surgery have potentially serious vascular injury-related complications. In this study the authors evaluate the incidence of vascular complications in anterior approaches to the thoracic and lumbar spine in cases requiring reconstructive surgery. methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 207 patients who underwent anterior thoracic and lumbar spinal reconstructive surgery during the period from 1992 through 1999 to determine the incidence, causes, and management of vascular complications. overall, the incidence of vascular complications following reconstructive spinal surgery was 5.8% (12 patients) and the mortality rate was 1% (two patient deaths). In seven patients (3.4%), direct vascular injuries developed as a result of surgical techniques or error; one patient died as a result. Five patients (2.4%) developed deep venous thromboses, and one patient in this subgroup died of pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular injury to the great vessels is a known and potentially serious complication associated with anterior spinal reconstructive procedures. The authors found, however, that the incidence is relatively low in cases in which venous injuries occurred acutely and arterial injuries presented in a delayed fashion.
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ranking = 69.950649714012
keywords = vascular complication
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10/49. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a healthy postmenopausal woman.

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is rare and when it occurs is most commonly seen in young females following childbirth. We report a case of a 55-year-old female who was found dead at her home. She had no history of cardiovascular disease. She smoked approximately 10 cigarettes per day. She complained of mild chest discomfort the night before her death, lasting for 10 minutes, for which no medical attention was sought. She had been seen and appeared well 15 minutes before death. At autopsy, the only abnormality was in the left anterior descending coronary artery, which showed a two cm segment with periluminal blood in the wall of the vessel compressing the lumen. Histologically, a dissection was seen between the media and the external elastic lamina of the affected artery. There was a mixed inflammatory infiltrate including eosinophils and very occasional giant cells. alcian blue staining was negative. The appearances were those of a localised dissection. The remaining coronary arteries were free of atheroma. SCAD should be suspected in young females in their postpartum period presenting with chest pain since emergency treatment can greatly increase survival.
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keywords = vascular disease
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