Cases reported "Aneurysm, Ruptured"

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1/84. Vertebral arteriovenous fistula that developed in the same place as a previous ruptured aneurysm: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Aneurysms of the extracranial vertebral artery (VA) and vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVFs) are relatively rare diseases. The most frequent cause of both diseases is trauma. Atraumatic lesions are less common. Presented here is a case of atraumatic AVF of the extracranial VA that developed in the same location as a previous ruptured aneurysm of the ipsilateral VA that was originally treated by proximal occlusion 11 years earlier. methods: A 40-year-old woman presented with a massive hematoma in the upper posterior neck region caused by the rupture of an extracranial VA aneurysm. Proximal occlusion of the VA was performed by use of a detachable balloon. She enjoyed good health for 11 years, then she noticed a pulsatile bruit. Angiograms revealed an AVF between the left VA that was fed by collateral circulation and the paravertebral venous plexus. Incidentally found were soft tissue masses in the left retroauricular and the right suboccipital regions. Also, skull X-ray films showed multiple bony defects. biopsy of the subcutaneous mass was performed in the hope of obtaining clues as to which pathological processes had weakened the artery. RESULTS: As direct transarterial access to the fistula was out of the question, the fistulous compartment of the paravertebral venous plexus was tightly packed with multiple platinum coils effected by the transfemoral approach. A histological examination of the specimen revealed features of a neurofibroma, and a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type 1 was established. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, transvenous embolization of the VAVF was successfully performed. The fragility of the arterial wall, related to neurofibromatosis Type 1, was considered to contribute to the development of the aneurysm and AVF.
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2/84. rupture mechanism of a thrombosed slow-growing giant aneurysm of the vertebral artery--case report.

    A 76-year-old male developed left hemiparesis in July 1991. The diagnosis was thrombosed giant vertebral artery aneurysm. He showed progressive symptoms and signs of brainstem compression, but refused surgery and was followed up without treatment. He died of rupture of the aneurysm and underwent autopsy in March 1995. Histological examination of the aneurysm revealed fresh clot in the aneurysmal lumen, old thrombus surrounding the aneurysmal lumen, and more recent hemorrhage between the old thrombus and the inner aneurysmal wall. The most important histological feature was the many clefts containing fresh blood clots in the old thrombus near the wall of the distal neck. These clefts were not lined with endothelial cells, and seemed to connect the lumen of the parent artery with the most peripheral fresh hemorrhage. However, the diameter of each of these clefts is apparently not large enough to transmit the blood pressure of the parent artery. Simple dissection of the aneurysmal wall by blood flow in the lumen through many clefts in the old thrombus of the distal neck may be involved in the growth and rupture of thrombosed giant aneurysms of the vertebral artery.
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3/84. Endovascular treatment of ruptured, peripheral cerebral aneurysms: parent artery occlusion with short Guglielmi detachable coils.

    We report two cases of distal cerebral aneurysms that were treated by parent artery occlusion with short Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). One patient had a presumed mycotic aneurysm of the distal left posterior cerebral artery, and the other had a partially clipped aneurysm of the distal right anterior inferior cerebellar artery that had hemorrhaged. Short GDCs allow controlled, accurate occlusion of the parent artery at the aneurysmal neck.
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4/84. Recanalization and rupture of a giant vertebral artery aneurysm after hunterian ligation: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Recanalization and subsequent rupture of giant aneurysms of the posterior circulation after Hunterian ligation is an extremely rare event that has been noted to occur with basilar apex, basilar trunk, and vertebrobasilar junction aneurysms. We report the case of a giant, previously unruptured right vertebral artery aneurysm, which recanalized from the contralateral vertebral artery and subsequently ruptured after previously performed angiography showed complete thrombosis of the aneurysm. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old woman presented with headaches, ataxia, and lower extremity weakness. A giant 3-cm right vertebral artery aneurysm was found during the patient evaluation. INTERVENTION: Because of the size of the aneurysm and the absence of a discrete neck, Hunterian ligation was performed. After treatment, angiograms showed no filling of the aneurysm from either the right or left vertebral artery. Nine days later, after the patient developed lethargy and nausea, repeat angiography showed that a small portion of the aneurysmal base had recanalized. The next day, the patient had a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and subsequently died. CONCLUSION: We think that this is a previously undescribed complication associated with direct arterial ligation of giant vertebral artery aneurysms. patients with aneurysms treated using Hunterian ligation need to be followed up closely. Even aneurysms that have minimal recanalization are at risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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5/84. Tissue response of a small saccular aneurysm after incomplete occlusion with a Guglielmi detachable coil.

    A 49-year-old woman had a small saccular aneurysm that was incompletely occluded with a Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC). She died from rupture of another aneurysm 42 days after the treatment. autopsy for the embolized aneurysm revealed no neoendothelium at the aneurysmal neck, but an organized thrombus was observed limited to the periphery of the aneurysmal lumen. Although isolation of the aneurysm was not apparent, loose embolization with this method may help to reinforce the aneurysmal wall.
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6/84. Ruptured distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysm presenting with casting intraventricular haemorrhage.

    This report describes a rare case of a distal anterior choroidal artery aneurysm which developed intraventricular haemorrhage without subarachnoid haemorrhage as shown on computerized tomographic (CT) scan. A 69-year-old hypertensive man suddenly became unconscious. An emergency CT scan showed a severe intraventricular haemorrhage and a small round low-dense lesion within the haematoma at the right trigone. The haematoma with obstructive hydrocephalus made the lateral ventricles larger on the right than on the left. CT scan could not detect any subarachnoid haemorrhage. Right interal carotid angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm at the plexal point of the right anterior choroidal artery. We approached the aneurysm and the small round lesion through the trigone via a right temporo-occipital corticotomy. We could clip the aneurysmal neck and remove the intraventricular haematoma and the papillary cystic mass (corresponding to the small round lesion on CT scan) totally in one sitting. Histological examination revealed the aneurysm to be a true one and the papillary cystic mass to be a choroid plexus cyst.
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7/84. Application of a rigid endoscope to the microsurgical management of 54 cerebral aneurysms: results in 48 patients.

    OBJECT: To enhance visual confirmation of regional anatomy, endoscopy was introduced during microsurgery for cerebral aneurysms. The risks and benefits are analyzed in the present study. methods: The endoscopic technique was used during microsurgery for 54 aneurysms in 48 patients. Forty-three aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 11 were in the posterior circulation. Thirty-eight aneurysms (70.4%) had not ruptured. All ruptured aneurysms in the present series produced Hunt and Hess Grade I or II subarachnoid hemorrhage. After initial exposure achieved with the aid of a microscope, the rigid endoscope was introduced to confirm the regional anatomy, including the aneurysm neck and adjacent structures. The necks of 43 aneurysms were clipped using microscopic control or simultaneous microscopic/endoscopic control. After clipping, the positions of the clip and nearby structures were inspected using the endoscope. Use of the neuroendoscope provided useful information that further clarified the regional anatomy in 44 cases (81.5%) either before or after neck clipping. In nine cases (16.7%), these details were available only with the use of the endoscope. In five cases (9.3%), the surgeons reapplied the clip on the basis of endoscopic information obtained after the initial clipping. There were two cases in which surgical complications were possibly related to the endoscopic procedures (one patient with asymptomatic cerebral contusion and another with transient oculomotor palsy). CONCLUSIONS: It is the authors' impression that the use of the endoscope in the microsurgical management of cerebral aneurysms enhanced the safety and reliability of the surgery. However, there is a prerequisite for the surgeon to be familiar with this instrumentation and fully prepared for the risks and inconveniences of endoscopic procedures.
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8/84. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle progressing from a subepicardial aneurysm.

    A 56-year-old man presented with an inferior myocardial infarction and a huge pseudoaneurysm below the inferior surface of the left ventricle, which had progressed from a small subepicardial aneurysm over a 6-month period. Transthoracic echocardiography, doppler color flow images, radionuclide angiocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and contrast ventriculography all revealed an abrupt disruption of the myocardium at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, where the diameter of the orifice was smaller than the aneurysm itself, and abnormal blood flows from the left ventricle to the cavity through the orifice with an expansion of the cavity in systole and from the cavity to the left ventricle with the deflation of the cavity in diastole. coronary angiography revealed 99% stenosis at the atrioventricular nodal branch of the right coronary artery. At surgery the pericardium was adherent to the aneurysmal wall and a 1.5-cm orifice between the aneurysm and the left ventricle was seen. Pathological examination revealed no myocardial elements in the aneurysmal wall. The orifice was closed and the postoperative course was uneventful. Over-intense physical activity as a construction worker was considered to be the cause of the large pseudoaneurysm developing from the subepicardial aneurysm. These findings indicate that a subepicardial aneurysm may progress to a larger pseudoaneurysm, which has a propensity to rupture, however, it can be surgically repaired.
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9/84. Flow dynamics in a lethal anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    We describe and analyze the flow dynamics in replicas of a human anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The replicas were placed in a circuit of pulsating non-Newtonian fluid, and flows were adjusted to replicate human physiologic parameters. Individual slipstreams were opacified with isobaric dyes, and images were recorded on film and by CT/MR angiography. When flow in the afferent (internal carotid) and efferent (anterior and middle cerebral) arteries was bilaterally equal, slipstreams rarely entered the aneurysm. When flow in either the afferent or efferent vessels was not symmetrical, however, slipstreams entered the aneurysm neck, impinged upon the aneurysm dome, and swirled within the aneurysm. Unequal flow in carotid or cerebral systems may be necessary to direct pathologic, fluid slipstreams into an aneurysm.
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10/84. Aneurysm of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery.

    A patient with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm of the right persistent primitive hypoglossal artery is described. Clipping of the aneurysmal neck was achieved by a far lateral approach together with drilling of the jugular tubercle, and it was concluded that this approach should be followed for safe and complete clipping.
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