Cases reported "Angina Pectoris"

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1/9. Pre-infarction angina secondary to calcific aortic stenosis with Bernheim's effect.

    Pre-infarction angina, in the absence of coronary artery disease, was found in a 62 year-old man with severe calcific aortic stenosis. After application of intraaortic balloon pump counter-pulsation, the condition was stabilized, and coronary arteriograms were safely carried out. Interestingly, an elevated right atrial and right ventricular end-diastolic pressure with an associated Bernheim's effect was demonstrated by cardiac catheterization. The hemodynamics of the right heart returned to normal after surgical correction of the aortic stenosis. The clinical indications for intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation in this setting are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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2/9. Successful treatment of symptomatic coronary endothelial dysfunction with enhanced external counterpulsation.

    Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a valuable therapeutic option for patients with coronary artery disease and refractory angina. Although the exact mechanisms by which this technique exerts favorable effects remain unclear, improvement in endothelial function is considered a potential mechanism contributing to the clinical benefit associated with EECP. We describe a young woman with severely symptomatic coronary endothelial dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease who experienced a dramatic and sustained reduction in symptoms in response to a standard 35-hour course of EECP.
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ranking = 5
keywords = counterpulsation
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3/9. Treatment of stable angina: medical and invasive therapy--implications for the elderly.

    Currently available therapies for chronic stable angina are reviewed. Revascularization, i.e., coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, is summarized briefly, with short- and long-term results summarized from several large registries and review articles. Advancing age is a risk factor for both coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, but risks of coronary events are also higher without interventions in the elderly. In-hospital mortality for coronary artery bypass surgery is about 8% for patients over age 80 in one large national registry and not much different in elective coronary artery bypass surgery in highly-selected patients over age 90 in one institution. The few randomized trials of invasive vs. noninvasive therapy for stable coronary artery disease are described. Although patient numbers in available studies are too small to be conclusive as to which type of therapy is generally better, data appear to suggest that higher-risk patients have better outcomes with revascularization. methods of risk stratification are discussed. Finally, unusual therapies for angina are briefly noted, including transmyocardial revascularization, external counterpulsation, and gene therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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4/9. Coronary angioplasty for medically refractory unstable angina in patients with prior coronary bypass surgery.

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has been applied with good results to selected patients with unstable angina and to selected patients who have had prior bypass surgery. The population with prior bypass and unstable angina has not been specifically evaluated. This report reviews the results of angioplasty of 45 vessels in 34 patients with medically refractory unstable angina and at least one prior bypass heart surgery. Of these 34 patients, 32 had rest angina; 14 had resting electrocardiographic changes, all 34 were on aspirin 325 mg QD, 31 were on a calcium blocker, 22 were on a beta blocker, 9 were on intravenous nitroglycerin, and 5 required intraaortic balloon counterpulsation for temporary stabilization. angioplasty of a vein graft was attempted in 17 patients; the left internal mammary was attempted in 4 patients; 24 native coronary arteries in 15 patients were attempted; 3 of the native arteries were protected left main arteries. Of the LIMA angioplasties, 3 were successful; in the 1 unsuccessful case, the occluded anterior descending artery was opened. Of the 17 vein grafts, 16 were successful: 1 had an acute occlusive syndrome and went to surgery with a balloon pump and bail out catheter; his recovery was uneventful. Of the 24 native artery angioplasties, 22 were successful: one patient was technically unsuccessful in the only vessel attempted; he went to semiemergent surgery and recovered uneventfully. In the other, a right coronary lesion was successfully dilated, but an occluded anterior descending artery was not opened. There were no deaths or in-hospital myocardial infarctions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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5/9. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    patients undergoing noncardiac general surgical procedures after coronary artery bypass surgery have reduced mortality compared with those operated on without prior revascularization. The urgency of the noncardiac procedure and the potential reconstructability of the coronary artery anatomy may mitigate against timely revascularization. We report the successful outcome of prophylactic intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in three patients with coronary artery disease and impaired left ventricular function undergoing noncardiac surgical procedures. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation may provide myocardial protection in high-risk cardiac patients requiring noncardiac surgery initially. A review of the literature is discussed.
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ranking = 6
keywords = counterpulsation
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6/9. Resolution of congestive failure, mitral regurgitation, and angina after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of triple vessel disease.

    Congestive heart failure, unstable angina, and moderate mitral regurgitation improved after double-vessel angioplasty in a 41-year-old woman who was considered inoperable because of high risk of bypass surgery. With the concomitant use of balloon counterpulsation, angioplasty reduced the cross-sectional stenosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery from 98 to 20% and in the left circumflex coronary artery from 90 to 0%. The right coronary artery was completely occluded and angioplasty was not attempted. The ejection fraction was 17% prior to angioplasty and 50% 2 months later at follow-up.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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7/9. Cardiopathia fantastica and arteritis factitia as manifestations of munchausen syndrome.

    We describe three patients, each with a cardiovascular presentation of Munchausen's syndrome. Two patients' symptoms masqueraded as unstable angina (cardiopathia fantastica); one required intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, while repeated cardiac catheterizations revealed normal coronary arteries. The third patient, with at least 27 documented hospital admissions, first presented as the cardiopathia fantastica variety and progressed to recurrent thromboembolism and limb amputations as a result of iatrogenic complications induced by angiographic and surgical procedures (arteritis factitia).
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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8/9. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation for cardiac support during noncardiac operations.

    Major noncardiac surgery is a serious hazard to patients with advanced coronary disease. Perioperative infarction is common, and preliminary coronary bypass is often unwarranted. We suggest that the use of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) for perioperative support of such patients makes perioperative infarction unlikely and permits otherwise hazardous operations. Three patients with advanced coronary disease (unstable angina in two) had major thoracotomies for lung masses without cardiac complications. This management plan has wider implications for other noncardiac surgical problems in such patients, particularly for mandatory operations wuch as relieving intestinal obstructions.
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ranking = 4
keywords = counterpulsation
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9/9. Simultaneous revascularization of coronary and vertebral arteries.

    Simultaneous vertebral artery and coronary artery bypass are reported in a patient with unstable angina who exhibited signs and symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency while awaiting myocardial revascularization. The indications and various technical options for vertebral artery bypass are reviewed, and the techniques applied in this case are described. Observations on coronary and vertebral vein graft flow, with and without intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, are presented. Late patency of the aortovertebral vein graft has been documented, and the patient has been free from symptoms of vertebrobasilar and coronary insufficiency for 5 years.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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