Cases reported "Ankle Injuries"

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1/70. Osteochondral mosaicplasty for the treatment of focal chondral and osteochondral lesions of the knee and talus in the athlete. Rationale, indications, techniques, and results.

    New techniques for articular cartilage transplantation have become available recently for traumatic chondral injuries. Applications to the athlete have generated considerable interest in the sports medicine community. The autogenous osteochondral grafting mosaicplasty has been used to treat these injuries in the athlete population for the past six years. The rationale, indications, operative technique, results, and limitations of mosaicplasty in the athlete are presented and discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/70. Anterior tibial artery pseudoaneurysm after ankle arthroscopy.

    arthroscopy of the ankle has dramatically expanded its role in diagnostic and therapeutic value afforded to the patient; however, it is not without complications. Although the majority of the complications described are neurological in origin, vascular injuries can occur. A case of a patient with normal coagulation parameters who underwent a purely diagnostic ankle arthroscopy and later developed a pseudoaneurysm of her distal anterior tibial artery is described. The pseudoaneurysm was resected without complications and early postoperative recovery has been uneventful.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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3/70. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain syndrome that is often instigated by postoperative or post-traumatic events. The disease process can progress through three stages, the first of which tends to respond best to treatment. A review of the literature is presented, followed by a report of a patient who developed symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome following a water-skiing accident.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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4/70. Modified arthroscopic excision of the symptomatic os trigonum and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon: operative technique and case study.

    This article presents an operative technique for modified arthroscopic excision of the symptomatic os trigonum and release of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. The procedure uses two stacked posterolateral subtalar joint portals, rather than the customary anterolateral and posterolateral portal combination. By visualizing the os trigonum with an arthroscope positioned in a distal portal and introducing instrumentation through a proximal portal, the ossicle may be quickly exposed and excised with minimal dissection. A case study with a 22-month follow-up and a discussion of os trigonum syndrome are included to illustrate this procedure as an alternative to open excision or traditional arthroscopic excision.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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5/70. Acute complications in the operative treatment of isolated ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Using a computer database, we conducted a retrospective review of all ankle fractures treated at our institution from March 1985 to October 1996. Twenty-one patients with diabetes mellitus and isolated ankle fractures that were treated operatively met all inclusion criteria. Seven had insulin-dependent diabetes, and 14 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes. A randomly selected control group of 46 patients without diabetes who also underwent operative treatment of ankle fractures during this same time period were matched for age, sex, and fracture severity. The complication rate was 43% with 13 complications in nine patients with diabetes. There were seven (15.5%) complications in the control group. Complications in the diabetic group included seven infections (five deep, two superficial) and three losses of fixation. The complications were more severe in our diabetic population, requiring seven additional procedures including two below-knee amputations; a third patient refused an amputation. No additional procedures were required in our control group. All complications in our control group resolved with treatment. The relative risk for postoperative complications in patients with diabetes who sustained ankle fractures that were treated operatively was 2.76 times greater than the control group's (95% confidence interval, 1.57-3.97).
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ranking = 8
keywords = operative
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6/70. Combined talar body and tibial plafond fracture: a case report.

    We report a case of a crush fracture of the body of the talus associated with an anterior tibial plafond fracture. This injury is a rare variant of talar body fracture which merits special attention. The bony injury in this type of fracture is associated with multiple loose fragments involving both weightbearing surfaces of the ankle joint. After appropriate imaging to allow preoperative planning, we utilized a two-incision approach which was necessary to achieve adequate exposure and fixation. We used basic fracture management principles to deal with a previously undocumented fracture pattern.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/70. Intraoperative imaging of the tibial plafond fracture: a potential pitfall.

    STUDY DESIGN: Human tibial plafond cadaveric specimens were coronally sectioned and imaged to assess the accuracy of evaluation of ankle joint line congruity using anteroposterior radiography. Two interesting representative clinical cases are discussed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of the routine use of anteroposterior radiographs to evaluate intra-operative ankle joint line congruity in circumstances where lateral radiographs are infeasible due to obscuring internal or external hardware. methods: Eleven frozen human cadaveric lower extremity specimens were used in this study. At the level of the tibial plafond, the specimens were sequentially sliced into 0.5cm sections in the coronal plane. True anteroposterior radiographs were taken with the specimen en bloc. Sequentially, the posterior slices were removed one by one, with an image taken after removing each section. The process was then repeated by removing the anterior sections sequentially with intervening radiographs. Each series of anteroposterior radiographs was then evaluated to characterize which portion of the joint line on the whole specimen view had been contributed by each of the sections. This then allowed us to make inferences about the evaluation of the joint line if it had been derived solely by anteroposterior radiography. Two poignant clinical cases demonstrating the clinical relevance of this information are discussed. RESULTS: By sequentially imaging after removing coronal sections of the tibial plafond we were able to accurately characterize the contribution of each portion of the plafond to the overall anteroposterior view. By primarily imaging the anterior portions of the plafond, with the posterior portions removed, the joint line image was virtually unchanged from the en bloc anteroposterior radiograph. However, removal of the anterior coronal sections caused large variation in the joint line image. These observations demonstrate that the anteroposterior radiograph of the tibial plafond characterizes the anterior portion of the joint well, while it represents a poor assessment of the posterior portion of the joint. This was well illustrated in our clinical case presentations. CONCLUSION: In severe fractures of the tibial plafond multiple forms of internal and external devices are frequently used for fixation. In these circumstances hardware may obscure the lateral view making it impossible to obtain adequate lateral radiographs to assess fracture reduction and joint line congruity. In this scenario, the anteroposterior radiograph is frequently relied upon to confirm the anatomic relationship of the displaced fragments. However, this view fails to accurately characterize reduction in the entire joint line and, intra-operatively, may mislead the surgeon to accept a reduction as anatomic when intra-articular incongruity still exists. Strict attention to pre-operative radiographs and the use of additional rotated views may aid the surgeon in this setting to assess fracture reduction and joint line congruence.
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ranking = 7
keywords = operative
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8/70. Immediate tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with interposition fibular autograft for salvage after talus fracture: a case report.

    Treatment goals in the operative management of talus fractures include prompt, anatomic, open reduction with rigid internal fixation; functional outcome is measured by degree of arthrosis, pain, range of motion, limb length, cosmesis, and return to premorbid activities. If restoration of the articular surfaces is precluded secondary to comminution, immediate and/or staged reconstructive salvage procedures must be considered. This report describes an immediate reconstructive procedure for salvage after a comminuted talus fracture with an ipsilateral tibia fracture. A standard antegrade tibial nail extending into the calcaneus was selected to stabilize both fracture sites. The technique of tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using interposition fibular autograft and intramedullary fixation is presented as a unique treatment option.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/70. Longitudinal split of peroneus brevis tendon. A report on two cases.

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To describe the clinical findings and surgical treatment of peroneus brevis split. MATERIAL AND methods: Two cases of longitudinal split of the peroneus brevis tendon are reported. One of the patients was a healthy middle-aged woman, who had fallen out of a car in a traffic accident and sprained her right ankle. Lateral ankle sprain was diagnosed and treated with a compression bandage. Lateral ankle pain persisted, however, with some swelling in the peroneal tendon region. MRI revealed a longitudinal partial rupture of the peroneus brevis tendon, which was treated surgically 12 months after the trauma. The second case was a 53-year-old woman, who had been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for 2 years. chronic pain and swelling in the peroneal tendon region were treated with 6 local corticosteroid injections without significant relief. Preoperative ultrasonography showed effusion of the peroneal tenosynovium, but the operation revealed a longitudinal split in the peroneus brevis tendon. RESULTS: In the first case, a single central peroneus brevis split was repaired with side-to-side suturation. After four weeks with a below-knee cast the patient was allowed to walk freely. At follow-up 12 months postoperatively, she was satisfied, although she still had some exertion pain in her ankle. In the second case, the torn fragment of the peroneus brevis tendon was excised and the ankle was mobilized early. Healing was complicated by a wound fistula, which was treated with antibiotics. Subluxation of the peroneus longus tendon necessitated a reoperation, which revealed a rerupture and a defect of the peroneus brevis tendon. The subluxation was repaired and the ruptured tendon ends were revised, followed by four weeks of below-knee cast immobilization, after which the patient was allowed to walk freely. The outcome was good. CONCLUSION: Peroneus brevis split easily goes unrecognised or misdiagnosed. It must be considered in patients with a history of single or recurrent ankle sprain or a chronic inflammatory disease. Lateral ankle pain, diffuse or local swelling in the peroneal tendon region, and a stable or instable ankle with no peroneal weakness are the main symptoms and findings. MRI is the most exact method for diagnosing tendon split. Surgical treatment usually gives good results.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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10/70. Traumatic medial malleolar fracture of a fibula flap donor leg.

    A 50-year-old male presented with a T4 N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and alveolus. Treatment included a partial mandibulectomy with a free osteocutaneous fibula flap reconstruction. He made a good postoperative recovery and was given adjuvant radiotherapy. No problems were reported with the donor site or ankle. Five months after harvesting the flap the patient sustained a fracture of the medial malleolus having jumped over a ditch playing golf. This was treated successfully with a below knee plaster of paris cast. The interosseous membrane was not ruptured in the accident indicating that the distal fibula left in situ was adequate to maintain the integrity of the mortice. A degree of ankle instability may be present after fibula flap harvest which is only revealed by athletic activity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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