Cases reported "Ankle Injuries"

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1/111. Recognition and management of Tillaux fractures in adolescents.

    Tillaux fractures are relatively uncommon Salter Harris III fractures of the tibia. The importance of recognizing this fracture is that a residual deformity in the joint surface can lead to premature degenerative arthritis. For this reason, it is important that accurate imaging to assess the congruity of the joint, as well as adequate reduction, is obtained. These fractures can occur in adolescents in the 18-month period during which the distal tibial epiphysis is closing. These injuries occur either by lateral rotation of the foot or by medial rotation of the leg on the fixed foot. Closed reduction is sufficient in most cases; however, if a gap of > or = 2 mm of the articular surface remains, open reduction is usually required to adequately reduce the articular surface. Orthopedic injuries are one of the most common reasons children are brought to the emergency department (ED). Most of these injuries are easily managed by splinting, with outpatient orthopedic follow-up. However, certain fractures need closer evaluation and immediate consultation with an orthopedic surgeon. One relatively uncommon fracture that needs special attention is the Tillaux fracture. Paul Jules Tillaux first described this particular fracture in 1892. He performed experiments on cadavers and found that stress to the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament could lead to this type of avulsion fracture, which today is termed the Tillaux fracture. The distal tibial epiphysis is involved, and the mechanism usually is forced external rotation of the foot in a 12- to 14-year-old adolescent. This fracture only occurs during a certain time of adolescence, owing to the differential growth rate of the epiphysis, and only under certain circumstances. The fracture is of great importance because it involves a major weight-bearing articular surface. A residual deformity of the joint surface can lead to premature degenerative arthritis. We present a patient with a Tillaux fracture to elaborate on the mechanism of injury and to summarize the importance of its recognition and imaging and treatment options.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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2/111. Anterior tibial artery pseudoaneurysm after ankle arthroscopy.

    arthroscopy of the ankle has dramatically expanded its role in diagnostic and therapeutic value afforded to the patient; however, it is not without complications. Although the majority of the complications described are neurological in origin, vascular injuries can occur. A case of a patient with normal coagulation parameters who underwent a purely diagnostic ankle arthroscopy and later developed a pseudoaneurysm of her distal anterior tibial artery is described. The pseudoaneurysm was resected without complications and early postoperative recovery has been uneventful.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = tibia
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3/111. Fibular nonunion and equinovarus deformity secondary to posterior tibial tendon incarceration in the syndesmosis: a case report after a bimalleolar fracture-dislocation.

    A 39-year-old woman sustained a grade II open bimalleolar fracture-dislocation of the left ankle. Six months after an ORIF of these fractures was performed, she presented with a nonunion of the distal fibula fracture and with a fixed hindfoot equinovarus and forefoot adduction deformity. At surgery for repair of the fibular nonunion, the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) was found to be entrapped in the posterior tibiotalar joint, with a portion of the tendon interposed between the tibia and the fibula in the area of the posterior syndesmosis. After extrication of the PTT, the hindfoot varus and forefoot adduction deformity were corrected. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the English literature of a missed PTT syndesmotic entrapment that resulted in a fibular nonunion and in a fixed foot deformity after an open bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tibia
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4/111. Checkrein deformity--an unusual complication associated with a closed Salter-Harris Type II ankle fracture: a case report.

    This article presents a case of tethering of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon (checkrein deformity) and rupture of the posterior tibialis tendon after a closed Salter-Harris Type II ankle fracture. Delayed repair was affected by tenolysis of the FHL and flexor digitorum longus tendons and tenodesis of the posterior tibialis to the flexor digitorum longus tendon. This case represents the first such report of concomitant entrapment of the FHL tendon and rupture of the posterior tibialis tendon after a closed ankle fracture.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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5/111. Anterior tibial aneurysm following inversion injury to the ankle.

    Arterial injuries in nonpenetrating low-energy injuries to the extremities are rare but can occur when joint injuries put the vessels in traction against their immobile attachments to the long bones. The most common injuries are to the popliteal artery (because of its tethered nature proximal to the popliteal fossa) and the brachial artery (because it is tethered to the humerus proximal to the elbow). The second reported case of an aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery resulting from an inversion injury to the ankle is described.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = tibia
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6/111. Combined talar body and tibial plafond fracture: a case report.

    We report a case of a crush fracture of the body of the talus associated with an anterior tibial plafond fracture. This injury is a rare variant of talar body fracture which merits special attention. The bony injury in this type of fracture is associated with multiple loose fragments involving both weightbearing surfaces of the ankle joint. After appropriate imaging to allow preoperative planning, we utilized a two-incision approach which was necessary to achieve adequate exposure and fixation. We used basic fracture management principles to deal with a previously undocumented fracture pattern.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = tibia
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7/111. Traumatic rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon after ankle fracture: a case report.

    Degenerative tears of the posterior tibial tendon associated with chronic disease are well documented in the literature. Traumatic ruptures of this tendon, however, are much less common and consequently have received little attention. An association has been shown between pronation-external rotation ankle fractures and tears of the tendons that cross the medial aspect of the ankle, most commonly the posterior tibial tendon. In the present case report, we share our unique experience of an open-ankle fracture associated with the traumatic rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. This injury illustrates that soft-tissue injury must always be suspected concomitantly in the treatment of certain fractures on the basis of both mechanism of injury and fracture pattern.
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ranking = 2.3333333333333
keywords = tibia
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8/111. Intraoperative imaging of the tibial plafond fracture: a potential pitfall.

    STUDY DESIGN: Human tibial plafond cadaveric specimens were coronally sectioned and imaged to assess the accuracy of evaluation of ankle joint line congruity using anteroposterior radiography. Two interesting representative clinical cases are discussed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of the routine use of anteroposterior radiographs to evaluate intra-operative ankle joint line congruity in circumstances where lateral radiographs are infeasible due to obscuring internal or external hardware. methods: Eleven frozen human cadaveric lower extremity specimens were used in this study. At the level of the tibial plafond, the specimens were sequentially sliced into 0.5cm sections in the coronal plane. True anteroposterior radiographs were taken with the specimen en bloc. Sequentially, the posterior slices were removed one by one, with an image taken after removing each section. The process was then repeated by removing the anterior sections sequentially with intervening radiographs. Each series of anteroposterior radiographs was then evaluated to characterize which portion of the joint line on the whole specimen view had been contributed by each of the sections. This then allowed us to make inferences about the evaluation of the joint line if it had been derived solely by anteroposterior radiography. Two poignant clinical cases demonstrating the clinical relevance of this information are discussed. RESULTS: By sequentially imaging after removing coronal sections of the tibial plafond we were able to accurately characterize the contribution of each portion of the plafond to the overall anteroposterior view. By primarily imaging the anterior portions of the plafond, with the posterior portions removed, the joint line image was virtually unchanged from the en bloc anteroposterior radiograph. However, removal of the anterior coronal sections caused large variation in the joint line image. These observations demonstrate that the anteroposterior radiograph of the tibial plafond characterizes the anterior portion of the joint well, while it represents a poor assessment of the posterior portion of the joint. This was well illustrated in our clinical case presentations. CONCLUSION: In severe fractures of the tibial plafond multiple forms of internal and external devices are frequently used for fixation. In these circumstances hardware may obscure the lateral view making it impossible to obtain adequate lateral radiographs to assess fracture reduction and joint line congruity. In this scenario, the anteroposterior radiograph is frequently relied upon to confirm the anatomic relationship of the displaced fragments. However, this view fails to accurately characterize reduction in the entire joint line and, intra-operatively, may mislead the surgeon to accept a reduction as anatomic when intra-articular incongruity still exists. Strict attention to pre-operative radiographs and the use of additional rotated views may aid the surgeon in this setting to assess fracture reduction and joint line congruence.
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ranking = 3
keywords = tibia
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9/111. Immediate tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with interposition fibular autograft for salvage after talus fracture: a case report.

    Treatment goals in the operative management of talus fractures include prompt, anatomic, open reduction with rigid internal fixation; functional outcome is measured by degree of arthrosis, pain, range of motion, limb length, cosmesis, and return to premorbid activities. If restoration of the articular surfaces is precluded secondary to comminution, immediate and/or staged reconstructive salvage procedures must be considered. This report describes an immediate reconstructive procedure for salvage after a comminuted talus fracture with an ipsilateral tibia fracture. A standard antegrade tibial nail extending into the calcaneus was selected to stabilize both fracture sites. The technique of tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using interposition fibular autograft and intramedullary fixation is presented as a unique treatment option.
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ranking = 0.66666666666667
keywords = tibia
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10/111. achilles tendon rupture associated with ankle fracture.

    The case of a 40-year-old man who sustained a medial malleolar fracture with extension of the fracture into the tibial plafond is discussed. Before surgery, the physical examination revealed an achilles tendon rupture. Surgical treatment to repair the bone and tendon injury was performed. achilles tendon rupture is not an uncommon injury, but it is rarely associated with a fracture. When a fracture is present, the achilles tendon injury can be overlooked, which may result in a delay of treatment or residual morbidity.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tibia
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