Cases reported "Anomia"

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1/12. Questioning the living/nonliving dichotomy: evidence from a patient with an unusual semantic dissociation.

    In this article the authors describe a patient (J.P.) whose category-specific naming deficit eluded the classical dichotomies between living versus nonliving items or visual versus functional attributes. At age 22, he had herpes simplex encephalitis followed by a left temporal lobectomy. J.P. was tested on measures of visual perception, category naming, fluency, and name-picture matching. He showed a severe impairment naming and identifying fruits, vegetables, and musical instruments. His performance with animals and birds was spared inconsistently, meaning that even the preserved categories were, at some point, affected. J.P.'s unusual deficit supports the hypothesis that semantic knowledge is organized in the brain on the basis of object properties, which can cut across the living-nonliving categorical distinction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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2/12. Naming impairments following recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis: category-specific?

    An apparently clear case of category-specific naming impairment selectively affecting animals was detected in a patient who had recovered from herpes simplex encephalitis. However, subsequent investigation demonstrated that these category-specific effects could be eliminated by controlling simultaneously for three factors in picture naming: word frequency, concept familiarity, and visual complexity. The results emphasize the importance of controlling for all factors pertinent to picture naming when attempting to demonstrate category specificity in picture naming. Further testing indicated that deficits were also apparent when naming to definition was required, and some impairment in the ability to answer questions about objects and living things was also noted. Theoretical implications of these data are considered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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3/12. Progressive language impairment without dementia: a case with isolated category specific semantic defect.

    A patient is described with a 5 year progressive defect of naming and auditory verbal comprehension, the pathological nature of which was presumably degenerative. The auditory comprehension defect unevenly affected different semantic categories, and was particularly severe for the names of animals, fruits and vegetables. The patients showed loss of the verbal knowledge of the physical attributes of the concepts corresponding to the words he was unable to understand, and sparing of the verbal knowledge of the functional attributes. His performance was defective also on the colour-figure and sound-picture matching test.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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4/12. anomia for animals in a child.

    The occurrence of anomia which particularly affected the category of animals is described in a 12-year-old boy. This difficulty cannot be accounted for by frequency or familiarity and is unaffected by whether the stimulus is a line drawing, photograph or model. The deficit does not represent development lag, as normal children of the same naming age differ qualitatively. The results, which include a one year follow-up, are discussed in relation to unitary versus multiple semantic systems. The disorder includes a disturbance of memory arising during the developmental period. It is suggested that items which are involved in daily actions can be more easily remembered than those which are identified by sensory features alone, and that the preserved learning of motor skills in acquired amnesia may be of relevance.
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ranking = 5
keywords = animal
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5/12. Autotopagnosia. Occurrence in a patient without nominal aphasia and with an intact ability to point to parts of animals and objects.

    A patient with a metastasis in the left parietal lobe demonstrated difficulty in pointing to body parts although he could name them when they were pointed to by someone else. As he had no nominal aphasia, could understand complex verbal instructions and could correctly describe the functions of named body parts, his autotopagnosia is unlikely to be a result of a category-specific comprehension deficit. As he is able to point to parts of objects, plants and animals on command, his disorder is also unlikely to be part of a general inability to analyse a whole into its details. Instead, his difficulty appears to be one of locating body parts in relation to the whole body. Such a disorder provides support for the existence of a discrete body image that can be disrupted by a lesion of the left parietal lobe.
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ranking = 5
keywords = animal
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6/12. Are semantic systems separately represented in the brain? The case of living category impairment.

    Following herpes encephalitis, a patient showed impaired knowledge of animals, fruits and vegetables, flowers and food (so called living things categories), whatever the modality in which stimuli were presented and responses were given. A series of experiments showed that the deficit specifically affected the ability to retrieve the perceptual features of the living stimuli defining their shape, while knowledge of their functional-encyclopedic properties was preserved. The patient had no problems with man-made objects, except when the recall of their colour, or the identification of their sound was requested. It is argued that the retrieval of the perceptual features was potentially disrupted for every type of category, but that the block was compensated for man-made objects, because the close correspondence between shape and function that characterises them provided an alternative route to access their structured form representations. On this account, the selective deficit for living categories seems contingent on the interaction between an overall cognitive impairment--the deficit in retrieving perceptual features--and some intrinsic properties of the stimulus--the factors that have modelled its form--and cannot be taken as evidence that semantic systems are allotted to separate cerebral areas.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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7/12. Towards a unitary account of access dysphasia: a single case study.

    We report the case of a patient, H.E.C., with a profound verbal comprehension impairment. His comprehension impairment involved both common names (animal and inanimate items) and proper names. Within the proper name category, his comprehension of country and famous peoples' names was better than his comprehension of common forenames. By using matching to sample techniques, H.E.C.'s impairment was found to be affected by presentation rate and by semantic relatedness, but not by word frequency. An analysis of his responses showed marked inconsistency and serial position effects (i.e. a decrement of performance on subsequent presentations of the same items). H.E.C.'s comprehension deficit was interpreted in terms of an "access" impairment within the word-meaning system. A unitary account of this impairment in terms of a deficit that delays the return, following activation, of the set of representations underlying a word, to a "ready state" is proposed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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8/12. Naming without knowing and appearance without associations: evidence for constructive processes in semantic memory?

    This study describes a patient (SE) with temporal lobe injury resulting from herpes simplex encephalitis, who displayed a previously unreported impairment in which his knowledge of associative and functional attributes of animals was disproportionately impaired by comparison with his knowledge of their sensory attributes (including their visual properties and characteristic sounds). His knowledge of man-made objects was preserved. A striking aspect of the present case was that the patient remained able to name many animals from their pictures, despite making gross errors in generating associative information about these same animals. This suggests that a semantic representation incorporating stored sensory knowledge may be sufficient for naming (at least for biological categories) and associative information may be unnecessary. Semantic knowledge may normally incorporate more information than is necessary for identification. SE's errors were found to be confabulatory and reconstructive in nature and it is argued that this aspect of his performance challenges passive conceptions of semantic memory couched in terms of a catalogue of stored representations. It is proposed that the patient's disorder affects a dynamic, constructive, and inferential component of his knowledge base, and that this component is sensitive to semantic category.
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ranking = 3
keywords = animal
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9/12. Charting the progression in semantic dementia: implications for the organisation of semantic memory.

    A patient, JL, with the syndrome of semantic dementia was assessed longitudinally over a two-year period. The data presented here address the controversy concerning the hierarchical organisation of semantic memory. On a range of category fluency tests, when first tested JL was just within the normal range on the broadest categories of animals and household items, but was virtually unable to produce any instances of specific categories such as breeds of dog or musical instruments. Longitudinal fluency data for the animal category demonstrate that while JL continued to produce the most prototypical responses (cat, dog, horse), other animal labels dropped out early from his vocabulary. On the picture-sorting tests from our semantic memory test battery, JL's discrimination between living things and man-made objects was preserved for a substantial time in conjunction with a marked decline in his sorting ability for more specific categories, particularly features or attributes (e.g. size, foreign-ness, or ferocity of animals). An analysis of naming responses to the 260 Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures on four occasions suggests a progressive loss of the features of semantic representations that enable discrimination between specific category instances. There was a progressive decline in circumlocutory and category co-ordinate responses with a rise in broad superordinate and cross-category errors. The latter are of particular theoretical interest; on session I, all cross-category errors respected the living/man-made distinction, but by session IV almost half of such errors failed to respect this distinction. The emergence of category prototypes was another notable feature, particularly in the living domain: at one stage, land (or four-legged) animals were all named either cat, dog, or horse. By contrast, within the man-made domain, items were frequently described in terms of their broad use or function, until eventually no defining features were produced. These findings are discussed in the context of competing theories of semantic organisation.
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ranking = 5
keywords = animal
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10/12. Naming deficit in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    OBJECTIVES--The preferential involvement of living categories in naming impairment is well recognised in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). In this paper we describe naming, neuropsychological and neuroradiological findings with seven fresh HSE cases. MATERIAL & methods--patients were given a picture naming task that included 60 items belonging to 6 different categories (three living, i.e. fruits, vegetables and animals and three non-living, i.e. furniture, vehicles and tools). In the statistical analysis several possible sources of bias as the frequency of the target word, the familiarity with the objects to name, the image complexity and other parameters were taken into account. RESULTS--Four out of seven patients were significantly more impaired with living things. We describe their general cognitive profile and discuss the anatomo-functional aspects of category dissociation. CONCLUSION--language impairment, disproportionately severe for the naming of living exemplars, is frequently observed in HSE, is clinically relevant and should be specifically investigated.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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