Cases reported "Anomia"

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1/41. Proper name anomia after left temporal lobectomy: a patient study.

    A patient with a selective deficit in retrieving proper names after left temporal lobectomy is reported. He showed proper name anomia in conversation, in response to photographs, and in verbal descriptions, despite being able to provide semantic information about the people he was unable to name. This report provides evidence that the rostral part of the left temporal lobe plays a crucial role in processing proper names without involvement of other verbal functions.
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2/41. A progressive category-specific semantic deficit for non-living things.

    We report a longitudinal study of a patient, ES, with a progressive degenerative disorder resulting from generalised cerebral atrophy. Across a range of tasks, ES showed a greater difficulty in recognising and naming artifacts than living things. This deficit for artifacts emerged over time, as she became more severely impaired. In one task, picture naming, there was a crossover from an initial deficit for living things to the later artifact deficit. All materials were carefully controlled to rule out potential confounding factors such as concept familiarity or age of acquisition. There was no evidence that ES's deficit for artifacts was associated with a greater loss of functional than visual information. The pattern of results are consistent with a recently proposed distributed connectionist model, in which a deficit for artifact concepts can emerge as the result of severe, general damage to semantic memory.
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3/41. 'I know your name but not your face': explaining modality-based differences in access to biographical knowledge in a patient with retrograde amnesia.

    In current functional models of person recognition it is proposed that there exists a single common body of semantic information concerning people accessible from all modalities (e.g. names, faces). In this paper, we present evidence that challenges this view. Two experiments are discussed investigating residual autobiographical and public knowledge in a patient suffering from retrograde amnesia. knowledge about people was investigated in each case by asking a series of questions, ranging from the very general to the very specific. Experiment 1 examined knowledge about famous people. The results showed that the patient accessed more information about famous people when cued with names than when cued with faces. Experiment 2 examined knowledge about people known personally to the patient. Again, the same pattern of results emerged. While the patient responded accurately to all questions posed with name cues, her ability to recall the same information when prompted with face cues was clearly inferior. This modality-based difference in accessing biographical knowledge is discussed in relation to models of person recognition.
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4/41. names and words without meaning: incidental postmorbid semantic learning in a person with extensive bilateral medial temporal damage.

    The authors describe a densely amnesic man who has acquired explicit semantic knowledge of famous names and vocabulary words that entered popular culture after the onset of his amnesia. This new semantic knowledge was temporally graded and existed over and above the implicit memory he demonstrated in reading speed and accuracy, familiarity ratings, and his ability to make correct guesses on unfamiliar items. However, his postmorbid knowledge was limited to verbal labels denoting famous people and words; he possessed virtually no explicit knowledge of the meaning of these words or the identities of these individuals, although there was some evidence that some of this information had been acquired at an implicit level. Findings are discussed in the context of a neural network model (J. L. McClelland, B. L. McNaughton, & R. C. O'Reilly, 1995) of semantic acquisition.
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5/41. Action naming in dementia.

    Recent studies of action naming in dementia report contradictory results. Some studies have shown that naming of pictured actions is impaired and indeed worse than naming of pictured objects, whereas other studies report the opposite result, i.e. action naming is better preserved than object naming. One reason for these conflicting results may be that actions vary in their relationships with object knowledge. Instrumental actions, e.g. hammering, require access to knowledge about a specific object (a tool), whereas non-instrumental actions can be named correctly without access to knowledge about a specific object, e.g. running. Moreover, many instrumental action names share a name relationship with the instrument used to perform the action (homophony), whereas other action names do not, e.g. digging. In this case report, we describe an anomic patient RS with dementia affecting his access to knowledge about objects from visual, verbal and tactile input. By contrast, RS displays relatively well-preserved knowledge and naming of actions. We found an effect of instrumentality on pictured action naming, i.e. actions that depict an actor using a tool are named less accurately than actions that depict an actor performing an action without a tool. We argue that the instrumentality effect is independent of the name relationship between the action and the object and also the visual complexity of the action. We consider several explanations of the instrumentality effect and conclude that an impairment to the areas underpinning sensory feature and sensorimotor information (specific to manipulation) can account for an effect of instrumentality on action naming in dementia.
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6/41. Deep dysphasic performance in non-fluent progressive aphasia: a case study.

    We present a patient (PW) with non-fluent progressive aphasia, characterized by severe word finding difficulties and frequent phonemic paraphasias in spontaneous speech. It has been suggested that such patients have insufficient access to phonological information for output and cannot construct the appropriate sequence of selected phonemes for articulation. Consistent with such a proposal, we found that PW was impaired on a variety of verbal tasks that demand access to phonological representations (reading, repetition, confrontational naming and rhyme judgement); she also demonstrated poor performance on syntactic and grammatical processing tasks. However, examination of PW's repetition performance also revealed that she made semantic paraphasias and that her performance was influenced by imageability and lexical status. Her auditory-verbal short-term memory was also severely compromised. These features are consistent with 'deep dysphasia', a disorder reported in patients suffering from stroke or cerebrovascular accident, and rarely reported in the context of non-fluent progressive aphasia. PW's pattern of performance is evaluated in terms of current models of both non-fluent progressive aphasia and deep dysphasia.
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7/41. Relearning of verbal labels in semantic dementia.

    Semantic dementia is a degenerative disorder of temporal neocortex characterised by loss of word and object concepts. There is limited evidence that temporary relearning of lost vocabulary may be possible, attributed to sparing of hippocampal structures. However, learning is variable across patients and factors underlying learning success are poorly understood. The study investigated relearning of object names in two severely anomic semantic dementia patients. Following memory models that assume that hippocampal memories require some neocortical representation to underpin them it was predicted that relearning would be influenced by patients' residual semantic information about stimuli. Experiment 1 confirmed that residual knowledge influenced learning success. On the assumption that neocortical knowledge encompasses concepts of space and time, as well as words and objects, it was predicted that learning would be affected by the availability of contextual (temporo-spatial) information. Experiment 2 demonstrated effective learning of object names, attributed to the patient's use of temporal order and spatial position knowledge. Retention of object names over months was linked to the patient's capacity for autobiographical experiential (temporo-spatial contextual) association. The findings indicate that relearning of lost vocabulary is possible in semantic dementia, indicating a role of the medial temporal lobes in the acquisition of semantic information. Effective learning does not imply reinstatement of lost concepts, but, it is argued, does involve some reacquisition of meaning. The findings challenge the traditional semantic-episodic memory dichotomy and are consistent with a "levels of meaning" account of semantic memory.
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8/41. anomia for common names and geographical names with preserved retrieval of names of people: a semantic memory disorder.

    This paper describes the case of an anomic patient (FH) who is impaired at naming pictures of objects but has no difficulties in recalling the names of familiar people. Even though his performance on McKenna's (1997) Category Specific Naming Test was at the first percentile, he consistently recalled the names of familiar people as successfully as controls. It is argued that the pattern of performance displayed by FH represents a much clearer double dissociation with proper name anomia than any case previously reported (Cipolotti et al., 1993; Semenza and Sgaramella, 1993). FH is unable to provide detailed semantic information about many of the objects that he cannot name, even though he can recall semantic information about familiar people. Consequently his case appears to represent the mirror image of the proper name anomic patient (APA) described by Miceli et al. (2000) who was unable to recall detailed semantic information about many of the people she was unable to name. Further investigation of FH's anomia revealed impairments in retrieving both common nouns and verbs, and difficulties in retrieving and comprehending geographical names. It is argued that FH's preserved ability to name and recall biographical information about people supports the view that knowledge about familiar people may be subserved by its own dedicated neural subsystem (Kay and Hanley, 1999; Miceli et al., 2000; Gentileschi et al., 2001).
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9/41. Subcortical pathways serving cortical language sites: initial experience with diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking combined with intraoperative language mapping.

    The combination of mapping functional cortical neurons by intraoperative cortical stimulation and axonal architecture by diffusion tensor MRI fiber tracking can be used to delineate the pathways between functional regions. In this study the authors investigated the feasibility of combining these techniques to yield connectivity associated with motor speech and naming. Diffusion tensor MRI fiber tracking provides maps of axonal bundles and was combined with intraoperative mapping of eloquent cortex for a patient undergoing brain tumor surgery. Tracks from eight stimulated sites in the inferior frontal cortex including mouth motor, speech arrest, and anomia were generated from the diffusion tensor MRI data. The regions connected by the fiber tracking were compared to foci from previous functional imaging reports on language tasks. Connections were found between speech arrest, mouth motor, and anomia sites and the SMA proper and cerebral peduncle. The speech arrest and a mouth motor site were also seen to connect to the putamen via the external capsule. This is the first demonstration of delineation of subcortical pathways using diffusion tensor MRI fiber tracking with intraoperative cortical stimulation. The combined techniques may provide improved preservation of eloquent regions during neurological surgery, and may provide access to direct connectivity information between functional regions of the brain.
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10/41. Proper name anomia.

    Following a left thalamic infarct, a patient showed a marked impairment in retrieving person proper names in response to faces and to verbal description, despite being able to provide precise information about the persons he could not name and to point to their photograph when the name was provided by the examiner. The patient was also impaired in generating proper names, but could easily retrieve common names as well as geographical names and names of monuments. It is hypothesized that the arbitrary nature of the link between proper names and their referents makes access of phonological forms from the semantic store particularly labile. In agreement with this interpretation is the patient's inability to recall telephone numbers and to learn semantically arbitrary paired associates.
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