Cases reported "Anomia"

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1/76. Lexical access via letter naming in a profoundly alexic and anomic patient: a treatment study.

    We report the results of a letter naming treatment designed to facilitate letter-by-letter reading in an aphasic patient with no reading ability. Patient M.R.'s anomia for written letters reflected two loci of impairment within visual naming: impaired letter activation from print (a deficit commonly seen in pure alexic patients who read letter by letter) and impaired access to phonology via semantics (documented in a severe multimodality anomia). Remarkably, M.R. retained an excellent ability to pronounce orally spelled words, demonstrating that abstract letter identities could be activated normally via spoken letter names, and also that lexical phonological representations were intact when accessed via spoken letter names. M.R.'s training in oral naming of written letters resulted in significant improvement in her oral naming of trained letters. Importantly, as M.R.'s letter naming improved, she became able to employ letter-by-letter reading as a compensatory strategy for oral word reading. M.R.'s success in letter naming and letter-by-letter reading suggests that other patients with a similar pattern of spared and impaired cognitive abilities may benefit from a similar treatment. Moreover, this study highlights the value of testing the pronunciation of orally spelled words in localizing the source of prelexical reading impairment and in predicting the functional outcome of treatment for impaired letter activation in reading.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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2/76. A progressive category-specific semantic deficit for non-living things.

    We report a longitudinal study of a patient, ES, with a progressive degenerative disorder resulting from generalised cerebral atrophy. Across a range of tasks, ES showed a greater difficulty in recognising and naming artifacts than living things. This deficit for artifacts emerged over time, as she became more severely impaired. In one task, picture naming, there was a crossover from an initial deficit for living things to the later artifact deficit. All materials were carefully controlled to rule out potential confounding factors such as concept familiarity or age of acquisition. There was no evidence that ES's deficit for artifacts was associated with a greater loss of functional than visual information. The pattern of results are consistent with a recently proposed distributed connectionist model, in which a deficit for artifact concepts can emerge as the result of severe, general damage to semantic memory.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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3/76. Identification without naming: a functional neuroimaging study of an anomic patient.

    The neural correlates of identification and name retrieval have proved difficult to characterise because both occur highly automatically in normal language processing. Thus, although some evidence points to the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) as a brain region underlying these functions, its relative role in semantic and lexical retrieval processes is still a matter of debate. Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure regional cerebral blood flow responses to famous and non-famous visually presented faces and buildings in a severely anomic patient and in six control subjects, while they were performing a same-different matching task. Because the patient was able to identify the stimuli that he could not name, it was possible to investigate whether the left ATC would respond when identification occurred without name retrieval. Both the patient and the controls activated the left ATC when famous stimuli were compared with non-famous stimuli. This result supports the hypothesis of a predominantly semantic function of the left ATC.
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ranking = 1.8666151846977
keywords = visual, cortex
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4/76. Hemispheric dominance for emotions, empathy and social behaviour: evidence from right and left handers with frontotemporal dementia.

    Although evidence from primates suggests an important role for the anterior temporal cortex in social behaviour, human research has to date concentrated almost solely on the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. By describing four cases of the temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia we show how this degenerative condition provides an excellent model for investigating the role of the anterior temporal lobe, especially the right, in emotions, empathy and social behaviour. Assessments of semantic memory, processing of emotional facial expression and emotional prosody were made, empathy was measured, and facial expressions of emotion were coded. Of the two right handers described, one subject with predominantly left temporal lobe atrophy had severe semantic impairment but normal performance on all emotional tasks. In contrast, the subject with right temporal lobe atrophy showed severely impaired recognition of emotion from faces and voices that was not due to semantic or perceptual difficulties. empathy was lost, interpersonal skills were severely affected and facial expression of emotion was characterized by a fixed expression that was unresponsive to situations. Additionally, two left handers with right temporal lobe atrophy are described. One demonstrated the same pattern of hemispheric lateralization as the right handers and had emotional impairment. The other left hander showed the opposite pattern of deficits, suggesting a novel presentation of anomalous dominance with reversed hemispheric specialization of semantic memory and emotional processing.
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ranking = 1.7332303693954
keywords = cortex
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5/76. Action naming in dementia.

    Recent studies of action naming in dementia report contradictory results. Some studies have shown that naming of pictured actions is impaired and indeed worse than naming of pictured objects, whereas other studies report the opposite result, i.e. action naming is better preserved than object naming. One reason for these conflicting results may be that actions vary in their relationships with object knowledge. Instrumental actions, e.g. hammering, require access to knowledge about a specific object (a tool), whereas non-instrumental actions can be named correctly without access to knowledge about a specific object, e.g. running. Moreover, many instrumental action names share a name relationship with the instrument used to perform the action (homophony), whereas other action names do not, e.g. digging. In this case report, we describe an anomic patient RS with dementia affecting his access to knowledge about objects from visual, verbal and tactile input. By contrast, RS displays relatively well-preserved knowledge and naming of actions. We found an effect of instrumentality on pictured action naming, i.e. actions that depict an actor using a tool are named less accurately than actions that depict an actor performing an action without a tool. We argue that the instrumentality effect is independent of the name relationship between the action and the object and also the visual complexity of the action. We consider several explanations of the instrumentality effect and conclude that an impairment to the areas underpinning sensory feature and sensorimotor information (specific to manipulation) can account for an effect of instrumentality on action naming in dementia.
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ranking = 2
keywords = visual
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6/76. Relearning of verbal labels in semantic dementia.

    Semantic dementia is a degenerative disorder of temporal neocortex characterised by loss of word and object concepts. There is limited evidence that temporary relearning of lost vocabulary may be possible, attributed to sparing of hippocampal structures. However, learning is variable across patients and factors underlying learning success are poorly understood. The study investigated relearning of object names in two severely anomic semantic dementia patients. Following memory models that assume that hippocampal memories require some neocortical representation to underpin them it was predicted that relearning would be influenced by patients' residual semantic information about stimuli. Experiment 1 confirmed that residual knowledge influenced learning success. On the assumption that neocortical knowledge encompasses concepts of space and time, as well as words and objects, it was predicted that learning would be affected by the availability of contextual (temporo-spatial) information. Experiment 2 demonstrated effective learning of object names, attributed to the patient's use of temporal order and spatial position knowledge. Retention of object names over months was linked to the patient's capacity for autobiographical experiential (temporo-spatial contextual) association. The findings indicate that relearning of lost vocabulary is possible in semantic dementia, indicating a role of the medial temporal lobes in the acquisition of semantic information. Effective learning does not imply reinstatement of lost concepts, but, it is argued, does involve some reacquisition of meaning. The findings challenge the traditional semantic-episodic memory dichotomy and are consistent with a "levels of meaning" account of semantic memory.
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ranking = 0.8666151846977
keywords = cortex
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7/76. Dissociations between object knowledge and everyday action.

    We report the case of a patient, MC, with Alzheimer's disease, who showed poor ability to name visually presented objects and poor visual access to the concepts of objects relative to a group of control patients (also with dementia). She performed well when words instead of objects were used in the various tasks. The data suggest that she has impaired access to semantic knowledge from vision. Surprisingly, she performed well when asked to perform everyday tasks with the same objects that had proved problematic in tests of visual naming and semantics. MC's pattern of performance is consistent with there being a direct route from vision to action and with the proposal that chaining between actions allows the development of action schemas which may operate even when there is impaired access to semantic knowledge.
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ranking = 3
keywords = visual
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8/76. Development of selective verbal memory impairment secondary to a left thalamic infarct: a longitudinal case study.

    A 68 year old man suffered an acute dysphasic episode with persistent memory disturbance while taking part as a control in a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. A small new left thalamic infarct involving the mamillo-thalamic tract could be demonstrated on volumetric MRI, coinciding with the development of a selective verbal memory impairment. This suggests that lateralisation of cognitive processing of visual and verbal material exists at the thalamic as well as the cortical level. High resolution volumetric MRI may be helpful in demonstrating small subcortical infarcts that may not be seen using computed tomography or conventional MRI.
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ranking = 1
keywords = visual
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9/76. Visual associative agnosia and optic aphasia. A single case study and a review of the syndromes.

    The case is presented of a patient who showed visual naming disturbances caused by a left occipital infarction. His performance on tests of visual naming, of recognition not requiring a verbal response, and of verbal-visual matching demonstrated a wide range of qualitatively different errors, including complete inability to recognize the object, access to partial semantic knowledge, and mere name finding difficulty. On the basis of the present case and of a review of the recent literature, the clinical distinction between visual associative agnosia and optic aphasia and the relation of these disorders with the anatomical site of lesion are discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = visual
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10/76. Optic aphasia with spared action naming: a description and possible loci of impairment.

    A brief functional description is given of an optic aphasic patient, A.G., who shows a pure and isolated deficit in naming visually presented objects on confrontation, but with sparing of visual action names. We show how some tasks related to imagery are compromised in this patient and speculate on possible functional site(s) of impairment in terms of the routes from perception to naming. We suggest why action naming may be spared in such cases.
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ranking = 2
keywords = visual
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