Cases reported "Anophthalmos"

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1/18. Diencephalic neuronal hamartoma associated with congenital obstructive hydrocephalus, anophthalmia, cleft lip and palate and severe mental retardation: a possible new syndrome.

    A male infant was born with severe hydrocephalus, bilateral cleft lip/palate, left anophthalmos and right microphthalmos, and an equino-varus foot deformity. Imaging studies showed enlarged lateral ventricles, apparent absence of the corpus callosum and a midline density in the third ventricular region. He had a normal male karyotype. He was severely mentally retarded and died suddenly at 7 years of age. Neuropathological examination of the brain revealed enlarged and polygyric cerebral hemispheres, due to congenital obstructive hydrocephalus, and secondary thinning of the corpus callosum. An unusually large neuronal hamartoma filled the interpeduncular fossa and third ventricle. It was continuous posteriorly with the left thalamus and so was classified as diencephalic rather than as hypothalamic. The right optic nerve merged with the hamartoma, whereas the left nerve was absent. Microscopically the hamartoma consisted of mature grey matter interspersed with narrow bands of white matter. No immature or non-neural elements were identified. This combination of diencephalic neuronal hamartoma, hydrocephalus, ocular and craniofacial abnormalities has not, to our knowledge, previously been described.
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2/18. Giant suprasellar aneurysm associated with optic stalk agenesis and unilateral anophthalmos. Case report.

    The authors report a patient with unilateral anophthalmos who had a large suprasellar aneurysm associated with aplasia of an optic nerve and the chiasmal commissure. The anatomical findings at craniotomy are described.
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keywords = optic
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3/18. A case of growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency associated with unilateral anophthalmia, microphallus, cryptorchidism, and mental retardation.

    We report a rare case of growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency associated with dysmorphic features. A 16-year-old boy had left anophthalmia, microphallus, bilateral cryptorchidism, and mental retardation. His chromosomal karyotype was normal, 46, XY. Endocrinological studies revealed growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, attributed to hypothalamic dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging scan of the head showed a hypoplastic pituitary gland, decreased high intensity signals in the pituitary posterior lobe, absence of the left eye, and a hypoplastic left optic nerve with no abnormality of the pituitary stalk, corpus callosum, or septum pellucidum. Although not completely consistent with the features of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), his condition was considered within the spectrum of SOD. Despite similarities to the Hesx1 knockout mouse, a model of human SOD, mutation analyses revealed no mutations or polymorphisms in coding regions of any exons or intron-exon boundaries of the HESX1 gene. Further genetic studies of this patient may improve understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in pituitary development.
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keywords = optic
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4/18. Newborn with anophthalmia and features of Fryns syndrome.

    We report a newborn female with craniofacial malformations, bilateral anophthalmia, large abnormally shaped ears, short neck, small distal phalanges and nails, left diaphragmatic hernia, hypoplastic optic nerves, severe pulmonary hypoplasia, and an accessory spleen, and describe the autopsy findings. The infant expired at 18 h of life. The features were most consistent with Fryns syndrome although other conditions were considered including Matthew wood syndrome. Anophthalmia, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously in Fryns syndrome; however, eye findings are common, particularly microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.
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keywords = optic
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5/18. Bilateral congenital anophthalmos and agenesis of the optic pathways.

    This report presents a rare example of a bilateral congenital anophthalmos and an agenesis of the optic pathways. The MR imaging studies revealed that the eyeballs, optic nerves, optic chiasm, optic tracts and optic radiation were absent. The chromosomal examination was normal. Mild mental retardation was also observed. Apart from the rarity of the anophthalmos and the total absence of the optic pathways, no etiologic reason for this pathology could be detected, which makes this case more significant.
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ranking = 10
keywords = optic
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6/18. SOX2 mutation causes anophthalmia, hearing loss, and brain anomalies.

    The SOX2 transcription factor is expressed early in the embryonic stem cells of the blastocyst and later in the neural stem cells. It is a member of the SOX family of proteins that carry a dna-binding high-mobility group domain and additional domains that regulate embryonic development and cell fate determinations. We surveyed 93 patients with severe eye malformations for mutations in SOX2. Here, we report a novel nonsense mutation in one female patient with bilateral clinical anophthalmia, absence of all optic pathways, and other neurological abnormalities. The mutation, Q155X, creates a premature termination codon early in the transcriptional activation domain and is likely to be a null allele. Our data show that mutations in SOX2 can cause not only anophthalmia, but also aplasia of the optic nerve, chiasm and optic tract, as well as modest bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and global developmental delay, underscoring the importance of SOX2 in early human eye and brain development.
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keywords = optic
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7/18. Unilateral clinical anophthalmia with optic nerve hypoplasia in the fellow eye.

    We present the clinical and radiologic findings of two cases of clinical anophthalmia in one eye and optic nerve hypoplasia in the other eye. We propose possible causes of this rare finding.
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ranking = 5
keywords = optic
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8/18. Deletion at 14q22-23 indicates a contiguous gene syndrome comprising anophthalmia, pituitary hypoplasia, and ear anomalies.

    Anophthalmia and pituitary gland hypoplasia are both debilitating conditions where the underlying genetic defect is unknown in the majority of cases. We identified a patient with bilateral anophthalmia and absence of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, as well as pituitary gland hypoplasia and ear anomalies with a de novo apparently balanced chromosomal translocation, 46,XY,t(3;14)(q28;q23.2). Translocation breakpoint analysis using FISH and high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has identified a 9.66 Mb deleted region on the long arm of chromosome 14 which includes the genes BMP4, OTX2, RTN1, SIX6, SIX1, and SIX4. Three other patients with interstitial deletions involving 14q22-23 have been described, all with bilateral anophthalmia, pituitary abnormalities, ear anomalies, and a facial phenotype similar to our patient. OTX2 is involved in ocular developmental defects, and the severity of the ocular phenotype in our patient and the other 14q22-23 deletion patients, suggests this genomic region harbors other gene/s involved in ocular development. BMP4 haploinsufficiency is predicted to contribute to the ocular phenotype on the basis of its expression pattern and observed murine mutant phenotypes. In addition, deletion of BMP4 and SIX6 is likely to contribute to the abnormal pituitary development, and SIX1 deletion may contribute to the ear and other craniofacial features. This indicates that contiguous gene deletion may contribute to the phenotypic features in the 14q22-23 deletion patients.
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keywords = optic
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9/18. An infant with diaphragmatic hernia, anophthalmia and cardiac defect: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging autopsy.

    We present an infant with diaphragmatic hernia, anophthalmia and cardiac defect evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) autopsy. This female infant was born at 39th weeks by vaginal delivery and presented with diaphragmatic hernia, anophthalmia, cardiac defect and died due to respiratory problems at 28th hours of life. MRI autopsy showed internal organ abnormalities including congenital hernia of the left diaphragm, secondary hypoplasia of the left lung, atrial and ventricular septal defect, dilatation of calices of the kidneys, bilateral anophthalmia, hypoplasia of the optic nerves, hyperintensity of pituitary gland possibly due to bleeding and a cyst of the septum pellucidum. This article shows that MRI autopsy is a valuable method for the evaluation of cases with congenital anomalies if autopsy is not possible.
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keywords = optic
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10/18. New observations on midline defects: coincidence of anophthalmos, microphthalmos and cryptophthalmos with hypothalamic disorders.

    Four children with severe congenital eye anomalies are described of which three had related symptoms. Two had bilateral anophthalmia, the optic nerves not detectable by computed cranial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and the third child had bilateral microphthalmia and coloboma iridis. The fourth patient had bilateral cryptophthalmia as part of fraser syndrome. All four patients were of small stature. In three of them growth hormone deficiency was demonstrated which was of hypothalamic origin as shown by growth hormone releasing hormone tests. In the fourth child hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and tertiary thyroid deficiency were diagnosed which responded well to thyroxine treatment. Pathogenetically the described disorders are due to congenital defects of midline structures as a common "developmental field".
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