Cases reported "Anorexia"

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1/6. patients with myelodysplastic syndromes benefit from palliative therapy with amifostine, pentoxifylline, and ciprofloxacin with or without dexamethasone.

    Thirty-five patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were registered on protocol MDS 96-02 and were receiving continuous therapy with pentoxifylline 800 mg 3 times a day and ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day by mouth; dexamethasone was added to the regimen for the partial responders and the nonresponders after 12 weeks at a dose of 4 mg by mouth every morning for 4 weeks. amifostine was administered intravenously 3 times a week at 3 dose levels (200 mg/M(2), 300 mg/M(2), and 400 mg/M(2)) to cohorts of 10 patients each. Therapy has been continued for 1 year in responders. Twenty-nine have completed at least 12 weeks of therapy and are available for response evaluation. Of the 21 men and 8 women (median age, 67 years), 20 had refractory anemia (RA), 3 had RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 5 had RA with excess blasts (RAEB), and 1 had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL). Five had secondary MDS. No differences were noted in response rates among the 3 dose levels. Seven patients did not respond at all, and 22 showed an improvement in cytopenias (76%). Three had a triple lineage response, 10 had a double lineage response, and 9 had a single lineage response (8 of 9 in absolute neutrophil count [ANC] and 1 had more than a 50% reduction in packed red blood cell transfusions). Fifteen patients responded only after the addition of dexamethasone, whereas 7 responded before. When examined by lineage, 19 of 22 showed improved ANC, 11 of 22 demonstrated more than 50% reduction in blood transfusions, improved Hb levels, or both, and 7 of 22 showed improvement in platelet counts. Interestingly, the responses were frequently slow to appear, and continued improvement in counts was seen up to 12 months of therapy and beyond. This study supports the feasibility of treating patients with MDS with the unique approach of cytoprotection and anticytokine therapies as well as the principle that prolonged commitment to treatment is desirable when noncytotoxic agents are administered. (blood. 2000;95:1580-1587)
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2/6. University of Miami Division of Clinical pharmacology Therapeutic Rounds: medications used to treat anorexia in the frail elderly.

    weight loss and anorexia are common problems that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the growing frail elderly population. Orexigenic agents are often prescribed in an attempt to improve appetite and lean muscle mass. Much of the data regarding their benefit comes from studies involving younger patients with illnesses such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or cancer. This article reviews the use and potential adverse events associated with these medications in frail elderly patients. This article also discusses the effects of the different antidepressants and antipsychotics on weight gain and appetite.
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3/6. Triethylene tetramine dihydrochloride toxicity in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Triethylene tetramine dihydrochloride (trien) is a copper chelating agent used as the alternative drug of choice in the treatment of Wilson's disease. Because of its apparent safety, we have used the drug in 4 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis in whom penicillamine had to be withdrawn because of serious side effects. Trien is an effective cupruretic drug in primary biliary cirrhosis, but its use is limited by the occurrence of side effects that occurred in all 4 patients. Three patients developed gastrointestinal side effects, and one of these patients developed a skin rash. The 4th patient developed acute rhabdomyolysis within 48 hr of receiving the first dose of the drug. One patient tolerated therapy for 20 wk, and, although her liver copper concentration did not show a marked fall, aspartate transaminase levels fell, and her IgM concentration fell to normal. Trien is an unsuitable copper chelating drug in primary biliary cirrhosis, although it remains the alternative drug of choice in Wilson's disease.
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4/6. case management of the hospitalized patient receiving interleukin-2.

    patients receiving intermediate-dose CI rIL-2 therapy require hospitalization for assessment and management of the potentially severe side effects, primarily those involved with cardiopulmonary and renal toxicities. Once the tolerable dose level has been identified for a particular patient, the severity of the side effects on subsequent cycles of therapy may decrease. During therapy, nursing management includes interventions to minimize distressing side effects such as fever, flu-like symptoms, fatigue, anorexia, and pruritus. Because the side effects of rIL-2 therapy are predictable, nurses can focus on early detection of these side effects and institute prompt interventions to reduce, minimize, or eliminate the symptoms. As oncology nurses prepare to care for hospitalized patients receiving rIL-2, a knowledge of the agent's side effect profile provides the foundation on which to base nursing practice.
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5/6. Factitious illness by proxy presenting as anorexia and polydipsia by proxy.

    Factitious illness by proxy is a highly pathological form of parent-child relationship. To our knowledge no former case of polydipsia by proxy has been published. The case of a 2-y-old boy suffering from malnutrition due to displacement of maternal anorexia and polydipsia is presented. child psychiatric evaluation found cognitive delay and psycho-social impairment in the child, as well as a severe mother-child relationship disturbance. Psychological assessment showed a personality disorder with depressive and paranoid features in the mother. The father was described as a schizoid personality. The possible mechanisms of displacement are hypothesized.
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6/6. Nutritional management of patients with AIDS-related anorexia.

    anorexia is a common problem in hiv infection and occurs via several mechanisms, including local pathology in the oral cavity or esophagus, central nervous system disease affecting eating mechanics or the perception of hunger, or secondary anorexia due to systemic infections, malabsorption, or medications, or to nonmedical factors, such as psychosocial problems, poverty, and isolation. The etiologic diagnosis of disorders of food intake is facilitated by using a diagnostic algorithm. The consideration of nutritional management centers around the body's nutritional reserves in addition to caloric intake. The specific management of a patient with poor food intake is based on the precise cause of the problem, and may include food-based and oral supplement therapies, appetite stimulants, or nonvolitional feeding via the enteral or parenteral route. anabolic agents, cytokine inhibitors, and other therapies, such as resistance exercise, are adjunctive therapies, and do not replace adequate caloric intake.
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