Cases reported "Anoxia"

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21/29. Profound atelectasis following alkaline corrosive airway injury.

    We report a case of life-threatening acute atelectasis following intubation for alkaline corrosive injury to the upper airway. The risk factors for and diagnosis of acute atelectasis as well as current methods of treatment are reviewed. It is important for emergency physicians to be familiar with this potentially fatal respiratory emergency during care for acutely ill and injured patients.
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keywords = airway
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22/29. A whiff of death: fatal volatile solvent inhalation abuse.

    inhalation abuse of volatile solvents, previously known generically as "glue sniffing," is typically pursued by adolescents. A wide range of legal, easily obtained products containing volatile substances are available for abuse. We report two illustrative cases of fatal volatile substance abuse: gasoline sniffing in a 20-year-old man and aerosol propellant gas inhalation (aerosol air freshener) in a 16-year-old girl with underlying reactive airway disease. Although the ratio of deaths to nonfatal inhalation escapades is extremely low, volatile solvent abuse carries the risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrest after a dysrhythmia or vasovagal event, central nervous system respiratory depression, hypoxia and hypercapnia due to the techniques of inhalation, and other mechanisms. Investigation of the patient's substance abuse history, examination of the scene of death, and special toxicologic analyses are critical to identifying volatile substance inhalation abuse as the cause of death because anatomic autopsy findings will typically be nonspecific. Above all, physicians must suspect the diagnosis of volatile substance inhalation abuse, especially in any case of sudden death involving an otherwise healthy young person.
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keywords = airway
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23/29. Obstructive sleep apnea-induced supraventricular tachycardia.

    Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with various cardiac arrhythmias; however, supraventricular tachycardia has not been reported to occur in this disorder. This case report describes a patient who developed episodes of supraventricular tachycardia during periods of apnea and oxygen desaturation. With the initiation of nasal continuous positive airway pressure during sleep, the arrhythmia was abolished. The etiology and possible mechanisms responsible for the supraventricular tachycardia are discussed.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = airway
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24/29. pneumopericardium associated with face-mask continuous positive airway pressure.

    This is an uncommon case of a patient who developed pneumopericardium while being treated with face-mask continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for hypoxic respiratory failure following a coronary artery bypass graft surgery. A pneumopericardium detected by chest radiograph resolved completely after discontinuation of face-mask CPAP. Possible mechanisms that may have been involved in this unusual complication are reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway
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25/29. Mechanical obstruction in the anaesthesia delivery-system mimicking severe bronchospasm.

    We present a case where mechanical obstruction in the anaesthesia delivery system caused by plastic wrapping from a filter was misinterpreted as severe bronchospasm. The patient suffered severe hypoxia before the problem was solved by using a free-standing self-expanding ventilation bag. This near-fatal incident emphasises the importance of thorough equipment checking routines, rapid troubleshooting and how equipment failure may be misinterpreted as a medical complication. It also shows how transparent container material can become a medical hazard.
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ranking = 0.21087649811186
keywords = obstruction
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26/29. Necrotizing tracheobronchitis with progressive airflow obstruction associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus.

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune disease associated with leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A patient with stage IVB poorly differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma developed characteristic upper and lower airway involvement with profound mucocutaneous erosion and tracheobronchial epithelial desquamation. Immunofluorescence testing confirmed autoantibody deposition along the basement membrane of bronchial epithelium. Disruption of the cellular adhesion mechanisms, including desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and possibly the integrin subunits, is presumed to have led to disruption and desquamation of the tracheobronchial epithelial barrier, severe obstruction of the airways and hypoxia, and possibly bacterial superinfection. As far as can be determined, the feature of airflow obstruction occurring in association with PNP has not been described. physicians should be aware that these complications of PNP may rapidly lead to hypoxic respiratory failure and death.
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ranking = 0.65305179773423
keywords = airway, obstruction
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27/29. Difficult airway in a patient with Marshall-Smith syndrome.

    Marshall-Smith syndrome is a rare clinical disorder characterized by accelerated bone maturation, dysmorphic facial features, airway abnormalities and death in early infancy because of respiratory complications. Although patients with Marshall-Smith syndrome have several features with potential anaesthetic problems, previous reports about anaesthetic management of these patients do not exist. We present a case, in which severe hypoxia developed rapidly after routine anaesthesia induction in an eight-month-old male infant with this syndrome. After several unsuccessful attempts the airway was finally secured by blind oral intubation. After 2 weeks, laryngeal anatomy was examined with fibreoptic laryngoscopy which revealed significant laryngomalacia. laryngoscopy was performed without problems with ketamine anaesthesia and spontaneous breathing. The possibility of a compromised airway should always be borne in mind when anaesthetizing patients with Marshall-Smith syndrome. Anaesthesia maintaining spontaneous breathing is safest for children with this syndrome. If tracheal intubation or muscle relaxation is required, precautions are needed to maintain a patent airway. Muscle relaxants should possibly be avoided before intubation.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = airway
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28/29. Case report: utilization of the Thornton Adjustable Positioner in maintaining the airway for a child with obstructive apnea, micrognathia, and cerebral palsy.

    A Thornton Adjustable Positioner was utilized to maintain an open airway in a female child with cerebral palsy, micrognathia, and no verbal capability.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway
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29/29. life-threatening anoxic spells caused by tracheal compression after repair of esophageal atresia: correction by surgery.

    Three infants who developed anoxic spells 2, 5, and 20 mo following repair of esophageal atresia developed apneic spells during or within a few minutes of feeding. These episodes began with stridor and cyanosis; when severe, they progressed to apnea and loss of consciousness. mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was often necessary. Investigations failed to detect esophageal obstruction and/or a recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula. No neurologic or cardiac abnormalities were found. The cause was compression of a 1- to 3-cm segment of trachea anteriorly by a vascular structure and posteriorly by a dilated esophagus that emptied slowly because of poor motility. endoscopy confirmed the x-ray findings. The aortic arch and innominate artery were suspended to the sternum anteriorly, which relieved the apneic spells in all patients.
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ranking = 0.042175299622371
keywords = obstruction
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