Cases reported "Anoxia"

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1/3. fatal outcome in Eisenmenger syndrome.

    AIM: To assess correlations between fatal outcome and histologic findings of pulmonary vascular disease in different situations of Eisenmenger syndrome, either during the natural course or early-late after surgery. MATERIAL AND methods: The clinical follow-up and fatal outcome of 20 patients affected by Eisenmenger syndrome were investigated. In addition to the pathologic report and gross reexamination of the heart, the lung tissue was studied by histology. patients were divided into three groups: 6 non-operated patients who died during the natural course (Group 1), 11 patients who underwent correction of the congenital defect and died in the perioperative period (Group 2), and 3 patients who died late after surgery (Group 3). RESULTS: In Group 1, five patients (83%) died of cardiac arrest a few days after the onset of hypoxic attacks; in four patients histology showed Grade IV pulmonary vascular disease with diffuse fibrinoid necrosis in the distal pulmonary arterial vasculature. In Group 2, nine patients (82%) died on the first or second postoperative day after a refractory pulmonary hypertensive crisis, with histologic evidence in three patients of fibrinoid necrosis of the distal pulmonary small arteries and arterioles. In Group 3, two patients (67%) died suddenly, 6 and 18 years after cardiac surgery, following onset of dyspnea and cardiogenic shock; autopsy showed aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary artery with massive thrombosis in the setting of Grades III-IV pulmonary vascular disease without fibrinoid necrosis. CONCLUSION: fatal outcome in Eisenmenger syndrome, either in the natural course or after refractory hypertensive attacks post surgery, is frequently associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the small pulmonary arteries and arterioles.
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keywords = arteriole
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2/3. Pulmonary blood vessels and endocrine cells in subacute infantile mountain sickness.

    A male infant of 16 months, of the Han race, died from subacute infantile mountain sickness in Lhasa (3600 m). At necropsy there was right ventricular hypertrophy secondary to muscularization of the pulmonary arteries and arterioles thought to have been induced by hypobaric hypoxia. In addition, there was intimal proliferation of myofibroblasts in the pulmonary arterioles, venules and veins. There were increased numbers within the bronchioles of pulmonary endocrine cells, containing calcitonin and bombesin, which could be related to hypoxia or trophic effects on the pulmonary vasculature. The relation of delayed effects of hypoxia to primary pulmonary hypertension is considered in this study.
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ranking = 1
keywords = arteriole
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3/3. High altitude retinal hemorrhage: a clinical and pathological case report.

    Retinal hemorrhages may occur at high altitudes. They occur more commonly in association with acute mountain sickness and particularly with high-altitude cerebral edema. We describe a 27-year-old man who experienced retinal hemorrhages as well as papilledema and coma at 5,330-m altitude and who died four days later, one day after evacuation to 1,300-m altitude. At autopsy, we found papilledema and hemorrhages in the nerve fiber layer. These were sometimes distant from areas where there were arterioles and venules. There was perivascular red cell infiltration. Deeper layers of the retina were intact. We conclude that the hemorrhages were form both retinal capillaries and veins and we speculate that hypoxia, with or without the Valsalva effect, was the cause of the endothelial damage.
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keywords = arteriole
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