Cases reported "Anoxia"

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1/21. Apneustic breathing in children with brainstem damage due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    To confirm the presence of apneusis in patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and to clarify which factors influence their respiratory patterns, polygraphic studies were performed on two patients. Apneusis was clinically suspected in both patients who had severe brainstem damage. In one subject, inputs of vagal afferents from the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder often resulted in extreme tachypnea instead of apneusis. lung inflation facilitated expiration during inspiratory arrest. Expiration preceded a periodic inhibition of rigospastic discharge in the right biceps muscle. In the other subject, prolonged inspiratory pauses with cyanosis occurred with or without preceding epileptic seizure. Both phenytoin dose reduction and treatment with tandospirone, a serotonin-1A agonist, were effective in improving the respiratory distress in this subject.
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2/21. Bilateral vocal cord dysfunction complicating short-term intubation and the utility of heliox.

    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is an extremely rare complication of short-term endotracheal intubation. Its etiology following intubation is likely due to recurrent laryngeal nerve injury on intubation. The anterior ramus of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is especially susceptible to pressure injury in intubated patients. Heliox is reported as a successful means of decreasing the work of breathing in upper airway obstruction via decreases in airway resistance. Two cases of bilateral vocal cord dysfunction following short-term intubation are reported. The first case of bilateral vocal cord paresis treated with Heliox is described.
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3/21. Unusual facial markings and lethal mechanisms in a series of gasoline inhalation deaths.

    A review of deaths associated with hydrocarbon toxicity from gasoline sniffing in south australia throughout a 10 year period from July 1987 to June 2002 revealed 4 cases. The victims were all Aboriginal people from remote inland communities. Each death had occurred while the victim was lying in bed sniffing gasoline from a can held to the face. Once unconsciousness had occurred, the mouth and nose had been pressed firmly against the can by the weight of the head. In each case, the effects of gasoline toxicity had been exacerbated by hypoxia and hypercapnia from rebreathing into the container once a tight seal had been established between the face and the can. The circular impressions left by the can edges on the faces of each of the victims provided an autopsy marker that assisted in clarifying the details of the fatal episodes. Discouraging solitary gasoline sniffing in bed may reduce the death rate in communities where this behavior is practiced.
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4/21. Therapeutic benefits of helium-oxygen delivery to infants via nasal cannula.

    OBJECTIVE: The benefits of helium-oxygen (heliox) administration for pediatric upper and lower respiratory disorders have been well described. However, while most studies advocate delivery via a sealed or semisealed facemask system, such systems may not be tolerated in the young child. This report describes the successful and efficacious delivery of heliox via nasal cannula to 5 infants. methods: A mixture of 80% helium/20% oxygen was blended with 100% oxygen from a wall source and delivered via nasal cannula to 5 spontaneously breathing infants with respiratory distress at flow rates of 2 to 3 liters per minute. Treatment efficacy was retrospectively extracted from nursing, respiratory therapist, and physician entries in the medical record, specifically focusing on changes in respiratory rate, work of breathing, and oxygenation and/or ventilation parameters. RESULTS: All 5 infants tolerated the nasal cannula well. In 2, nasal cannulae were used after attempts to use a facemask system were not tolerated. All patients demonstrated rapid improvements in respiratory parameters including a decreased work of breathing (n = 5), respiratory rate (n = 4), transcutaneous CO2 (n = 2), and stridor (n = 2), or improved oxygenation (n = 1). In 1 patient, the recurrence of distress shortly after discontinuing heliox was rapidly reversed with heliox reinstitution. CONCLUSIONS: In infants with respiratory distress who do not tolerate a facemask, the use of nasal cannula represents a viable and efficacious alternative for heliox delivery.
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5/21. Rigid spine syndrome with respiratory failure.

    The pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory failure in the rigid spine syndrome are discussed in two cases who improved with respiratory assistance. In both cases, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were reversed in arterial blood gas analysis and %VC was less than 30%. Remission from respiratory failure has been obtained by the use of a ventilator during the night. The cause of the respiratory failure in both cases was severe restrictive respiratory dysfunction due to extreme flattening of the chest and fixation of the thorax during respiration as a result of contracture of costovertebral joints. All the previously reported cases of the rigid spine syndrome with respiratory failure died. Appropriate use of the ventilator can improve the prognosis.
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6/21. Hypoxic hazards of traditional paper bag rebreathing in hyperventilating patients.

    It is traditional practice to treat acute hyperventilation (thought to be due to anxiety) by having patients rebreathe into a brown paper bag. The author reports three cases in which this treatment, erroneously applied to patients who were hypoxemic or had myocardial ischemia, resulted in death. This clinical experience motivated a study of the effects of paper bag rebreathing in normal volunteers. Subjects deliberately hyperventilated to an average end-tidal CO2 concentration of 21.6 (SD, 3.2) mm Hg and then continued to hyperventilate into a no. 4 Kraft brown paper bag containing the calibrated sensors for a Hewlett-Packard 47210A capnograph and a Teledyne TED 60J digital oxygen monitor. Fourteen men and six women with an average age of 36 years (SD, 6.1) were tested. Results are reported as mm Hg. After 30 seconds of rebreathing, mean change in O2 from room air was -15.9 (SD, 4.6) and mean CO2 was 38.7 (SD, 6.2); at 60 seconds, -20.5 (6.0) and 40.2 (6.4); at 90 seconds -22 (6.8) and 40.5 (6.4); at 120 seconds -23.6 (6.8) and 40.7 (6.5); at 150 seconds -25.1 (1.2) and 41 (7.3); and at 180 seconds -26.6 (8.4) and 41.3 (7.5). A few subjects achieved CO2 levels as high as 50, but many never reached 40. The mean maximal drop in O2 was 26 (8.8); seven subjects had drops in oxygen of 26 mm Hg at three minutes, four had drops of 34 mm Hg, and one had a drop of 42 mm Hg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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7/21. Cardiovascular response to acute airway obstruction and hypoxia.

    We wished to evaluate the role of hypoxia in the production of cardiovascular manifestations of acute airway obstruction. We monitored blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and radionuclide ejection fraction in 14 healthy volunteers on exposure to four experimental conditions: expiratory resistive loading while breathing room air (RAL), expiratory resistive loading while hypoxic (HL), hypoxia alone (H), and expiratory resistive loading while voluntarily hyperventilating in a pattern similar to HL trials (VL). Mean respiratory-related oscillation in systolic blood pressure (pulsus paradoxus) increased significantly under each experimental condition compared with those at baseline (2 /- 2.3 mm Hg): for RAL, 21 /- 8.4 mm Hg; for HL, 34 /- 16.3 mm Hg; for H, 10 /- 5.4 mm Hg; for VL 26 /- 13.4 mm Hg. Pulsus paradoxus was significantly greater under conditions of moderate hypoxia (saturation, 80%) than of mild hypoxia (saturation, 90%). Electrocardiographic changes were more marked under HL and H conditions than under RAL and VL conditions. HL induced changes in blood pressure and frontal QRS axis that were qualitatively similar to those seen in naturally occurring asthma. Radionuclide ejection fraction showed no dramatic change with any experimental condition. We conclude that hypoxia magnifies the cardiovascular changes induced by acute expiratory resistive loads and may contribute to the degree of pulsus paradoxus seen in severe asthma.
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8/21. decompression sickness and the role of exercise during decompression.

    The risk of decompression sickness (DCS) is greatly increased with exercise at altitude. Bends is the commonest symptom in altitude DCS. Though the adverse effect of exercise at altitude is well known, the role of exercise during decompression is not clear. In this paper, a case of bends occurring with exercise during accidental decompression is presented. The event occurred while exercising on a treadmill at an altitude of approximately 4,572 m (15,000 ft) in the hypobaric chamber. No oxygen pre-breathe was done and ambient air was breathed throughout. The role of hypoxia and exercise during decompression, as well as individual susceptibility, are discussed. Even moderately severe exercise at low altitude may predispose healthy individuals breathing ambient air to DCS, especially when exercise is undertaken during decompression.
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9/21. Treatment of alveolar hypoventilation in a six-year-old girl with intermittent positive pressure ventilation through a nose mask.

    persons with alveolar hypoventilation have abnormal daytime arterial blood gases and abnormal responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in the absence of any identifiable lung or neuromuscular disease. The underlying defect in the control of breathing has not, however, been confirmed. We studied a 6-yr-old girl who was admitted in respiratory failure after a long history of disturbed breathing awake and asleep, which had been diagnosed as primary alveolar hypoventilation, (PaCO2 = 120). After several days of endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation, her condition improved and she was extubated. At this time her ventilatory response to hypoxia was absent (VE/SaO2:0.1 l/min/% at a CO2 of 45) and there was a right-shifted response to hypercapnia (VE/PaCO2:2.6 l/min/mmHg). As obstructive sleep apnea was suspected, nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was tried; however, it was not effective in maintaining arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation. Definite central apneas were observed during sleep both with and without nasal CPAP, and there was an absence of snoring. Her condition deteriorated, and there was a progressive increase in her awake arterial CO2 levels for a period of 4 wk. The IPPV with 5 cm H2O of PEEP was administered through a nose mask during sleep and this maintained both oxygen saturation and transcutaneous CO2 levels within the normal range. After 10 days of nocturnal assisted ventilation, the hypercapnic response returned to the normal position (VE/CO2:2.1 l/min/mmHg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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10/21. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of whooping cough.

    A 3-week-old baby, suffering from whooping cough with severe attacks of apnoea and hypoxia, was treated by nasal CPAP with a positive airway pressure of about 5 cm H2O. The respiration improved rapidly and the transcutaneous oxygen tension increased to a normal level. The treatment was carried on for 7 days and discontinued gradually in the course of 3 days. The child was also treated with pertussis immunoglobulin and erythromycin. The CPAP system employed is easily and rapidly applied and allows normal nursing of the child during the treatment and manual lung physiotherapy in upright position. The treatment probably proved lifesaving.
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