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1/32. Spontaneous tibial compartment syndrome in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    We present a case of a patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) who spontaneously developed severe bilateral anterior tibial compartment syndromes which required extensive surgical treatment. While infarction of skeletal muscle in Type 1 DM remains rare and usually affects the larger compartments of the thigh, this diagnosis must be entertained in any patient presenting with acute leg pain. If a patient displays any features of acute compartment syndrome, prompt fasciotomy must be undertaken.
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2/32. compartment syndromes.

    A patient is presented who developed the Compartment Syndrome, following blunt trauma to the lower limb. A "fibulectomy-fasciotomy" was performed. This allowed restoration of normal peripheral circulation of the limb but failed to prevent ischaemic necrosis developing in the anterior tibial, peroneal and posterior tibial compartments. compartment syndromes in the lower limb are discussed, with a view to their early recognition and management.
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3/32. intermittent claudication in athletes.

    All reported cases have occurred in the anterior tibial or rarely peroneal compartments. Case I and V in this series follow this same pattern. Case II and III are unusual in that they are the first recorded cases of this syndrome occuring in the calf of a leg. In Case IV the syndrome was present both in the anterior compartment as well as in the calf. Case III in addition, demonstrated arteriographic evidence of impairment of blood flow preoperatively which was relieved by fasciotomy. It is this author's opinion that this syndrome develops due to obstruction of venous drainage by a rise in pressure in the myofascial compartment with exercise. Perhaps it occurs in athletes because the muscle hypertrophy in these patients in greater than that in the general public and the margin of safety is reduced. It is not necessary to perform complicated or painful investigative studies to make the diagnosis. Kennelly and Blumberg state that "a convincing history is all that is necessary," and the author is in complete agreement with this statement. Fasciotomy gives complete relief and is earnestly recommended both to relieve symptoms and to prevent the catastrophic consequences of muscle necrosis. In fact, in severe cases it is best to advise cessation of physical exercise until the operation can be done in order that this severe complication does not develop.
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4/32. The anterior tibial compartmental syndrome. A complication of the Hauser procedure.

    Six cases with neurovascular complications, previously unreported as a complication of the Hauser procedure, have been presented. The salient features were unrelenting pain during the first 24 hours postoperatively, completely out of proportion to that which might be anticipated, and with concurrent or subsequent numbness. The anatomy involved was presented, and a theory of causation was discussed. A plea is made for early and complete tibial compartment decompression through fasciotomy and/or fibulectomy-fasciotomy.
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keywords = tibia
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5/32. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient's leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient's leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.
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keywords = tibia
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6/32. lower extremity compartment syndrome in an adolescent with spinal cord injury.

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the unusual complication of lower extremity compartment syndrome occurring in an adolescent with spinal cord injury (SCI). methods: Case presentation. RESULTS: A 17-year-old male with C5 asia A complete SCI developed a compartment syndrome of his lower leg on the ninth day postinjury. Presenting signs included an equinus deformity of the foot, blackened induration over the anterior tibia, circumferential erythematous markings over the calf, large urticarial lesions over the knee, and calf swelling. The presumed etiology of the compartment syndrome was excessive pressure from elastic wraps, which were placed over gradient elastic stockings. Pressures were 51 mmHg in the superficial posterior, 50 mmHg in the deep posterior, 33 mmHg in the anterior, and 34 mmHg in the peroneal compartments. The patient also developed rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria. In addition to supportive care, the patient underwent a dual incision fasciotomy for compartment release. CONCLUSIONS: The development of lower extremity compartment syndrome was probably a result of excessive pressure applied by elastic wraps. Elastic wraps should be used with caution in individuals with SCI.
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7/32. An unusual consequence of deep vein thrombosis.

    We report here an unusual case in which deep vein thrombosis, limited to the infrapopliteal region, led to an anterior tibial compartment syndrome as a major complication in a patient who had undergone heart surgery shortly before.
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keywords = tibia
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8/32. Anterior tibial compartment syndrome due to the pyomyositis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. A case report.

    Anterior tibial compartment syndrome was developed due to pyomyositis in a 33-year-old male patient with rheumatoid arthritis while receiving steroid therapy during the follow-up period. The preoperative physical examination, laboratory findings, MRI images, intraoperative observation and postoperative histopathological examinations confirmed the association with pyomyositis. The surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment were effective, and in the follow-up period, neuromuscular dysfunctions disappeared completely within 6 months. The patient has been asymptomatic for 4 years of follow-up. To date, anterior tibial compartment syndrome due to pyomyositis in a case with rheumatoid arthritis has not been reported.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = tibia
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9/32. Unimuscular neuromuscular insult of the leg in partial anterior compartment syndrome in a patient with combined fractures.

    A complicated case of ipsilateral fractures of the left femur and tibia after a road traffic accident is reported. The patient presented with numbness of the first web of his left foot and contracture of the extensor hallucis longus muscle, with fixed length deformity after intramedullary nailing of the femur and tibia. The extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior muscles were spared. Tinel's sign could be elicited at the mid-portion of the anterior compartment of the injured leg. This indicated that the distal half of the anterior tibial nerve (deep peroneal nerve), together with the extensor hallucis muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg, had been damaged. The subsequent management of this patient is described.
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keywords = tibia
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10/32. A case study using larval therapy in the community setting.

    This article discusses the use of larval therapy by district nurses in wound bed preparation in the community. A case study is presented of a patient with a persistently necrotic and painful anterior tibial wound post-fasciotomy. The case study offers an insight into the practicalities involved in the use of larvae as effective and safe debriders of tissue for wound bed preparation. It is concluded that larval therapy is an underused and misunderstood resource when considering effective wound care and this treatment should be actively considered as an alternative therapy in wound care. There is a need for both qualitative and quantitative research in this field, enabling a more thorough discussion to be entered into by all practitioners with an interest in this subject.
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