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11/144. budd-chiari syndrome and extrahepatic portal obstruction associated with congenital antithrombin iii deficiency.

    We report a patient with budd-chiari syndrome (BCS) and extrahepatic portal obstruction (EHO) associated with congenital antithrombin (AT) III deficiency. A 35-year-old man was admitted to Nishi Kobe Medical Center for evaluation of abnormal intrahepatic veins. By various imaging modalities, BCS and EHO were diagnosed. Laboratory data revealed parallel decreases in activity and antigen concentration of AT III despite normal liver function. Taken together, the etiology of both BCS and EHO was considered to be thrombosis, associated with congenital AT III deficiency. Two years after beginning warfarin therapy, the patient has no symptoms and his liver function remains normal. Anticoagulant therapy is considered useful for preventing progression of the disease.
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12/144. Intracranial venous thrombosis associated with severe antithrombin-III deficiency in pregnancy.

    We report a patient with intracranial venous thrombosis in the third trimester of pregnancy associated with severe antithrombin-III deficiency. The evaluation of protein C, protein s and antithrombin-III levels in patients with thrombotic events during pregnancy may reveal the specific cause of the thrombotic event and thereby influence patient management
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13/144. Severe preeclampsia in antithrombin iii deficiency with no history of venous thromboembolism.

    Complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, placental abruption, fetal growth retardation, still-birth and fetal death are associated with an increased frequency of pro-thrombotic abnormalities. We describe a case of severe preeclampsia and multiple placental infarctions in a 28-year-old woman at 31 weeks' gestation. Despite a negative personal history for venous thromboembolism, coagulation screening for thrombophilia detected an isolated antithrombin iii deficiency. In view of the high prevalence of pro-thrombotic complications, laboratory screening for thrombophilia would be advantageous in women with complicated pregnancies, to ensure adequate management in high-risk situations, as suggested by larger-scale clinical investigations.
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14/144. Homozygous antithrombin deficiency type II (99 Leu to Phe mutation) and childhood thromboembolism.

    We report 5 children from 3 families with homozygous antithrombin deficiency type II affecting the heparin binding site (99 Leu to Phe mutation). Four children had severe spontaneous thromboembolic events (deep leg or caval vein thrombosis, ischaemic stroke) at one week, 3 months, 13 and 14 years of age. The fifth patient, a 17 year-old boy was asymptomatic. Early manifestation of homozygous deficiency calls for prompt and accurate diagnosis. In doubtful cases genetic analysis is required. Long-term oral anticoagulation should be considered in affected individuals.
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15/144. Creation of an additional glycosylation site as a mechanism for type I antithrombin deficiency.

    We report the identification of a new mutation resulting in type I antithrombin (AT) deficiency and the mechanism by which the deficiency arose. The single base substitution of G to A at nucleotide 2709 was identified in a proband with a family history of venous thrombosis. The mutation results in a substitution of 82 Ser by Asn, creating a new glycosylation site. Expression studies were then carried out, to confirm Asn-linked glycosylation occurred at this consensus site and that this resulted in the AT deficient phenotype. Cell-free translations using rabbit reticulocyte lysate in the presence of microsomes demonstrated that the 82 Asn variant was post-translationally processed efficiently. The 82 Asn variant protein was of a higher molecular weight than normal AT. consistent with the addition of a fifth glycan chain. Incubation of translation product with endoglycosidase H, confirmed that the higher molecular weight product had resulted from additional carbohydrate. Expression of the 82 Asn variant in COS-7 cells resulted in intracellular accumulation, with a low level of secretion of the protein into culture supernatant, consistent with type I AT deficiency. The addition of an extra carbohydrate side chain to residue 82 of antithrombin may block post-translational folding. trapping the variant intracellulary.
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16/144. Management of pregnancy with congenital antithrombin iii deficiency: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    women with antithrombin (AT) III deficiency are prone to pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism. We report 2 cases with genetically confirmed ATIII deficiency, one with a mutation in exon 3A and the other with an exon 4 deletion, in whom the pregnancies were successfully managed with prophylactic therapies for thrombosis. A 35-year-old pregnant woman was treated with intravenous infusions of ATIII concentrate alone, and the other 22-year-old pregnant woman was mainly treated with subcutaneous injections of heparin and oral low-dose aspirin therapy. Both pregnancies resulted in vaginal deliveries of healthy neonates. The literature concerning prophylactic therapies for thrombosis in ATIII deficiency-complicated pregnancy is reviewed, and the clinical problems, including the adverse effects of the therapies, are discussed.
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17/144. Anticoagulation management in a patient with an acquired antithrombin iii deficiency.

    We report a case of heparin resistance and its management during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A 63-year-old, 96 Kg female with a posterior myocardial infarction (MI) with previous deep venous thrombosis was treated with intravenous (IV) heparin infusion for 7 days before myocardial revascularization surgery. The patient required 1200 IU/Kg of beef lung heparin to extend the activated clotting time (ACT) in order to initiate CPB. A total of 1562 IU/Kg of heparin was administered throughout the procedure. This acquired heparin resistance was attributed to an antithrombin (AT III) deficiency, and was treated with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to restore adequate anticoagulation. The patient's heparinized ACTs ranged between 368 seconds and 387 seconds before FFP administration as opposed to 626 seconds to 1329 seconds after treatment with FFP and additional heparin once on CBP. The patient experienced an uneventful postoperative course. Future treatment with AT III concentrate rather than FFP may reduce heparin requirements that will, in turn, reduce protamine reversal dose, postoperative bleeding attributable to heparin rebound, and its associated complications.
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18/144. bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with portal vein and superior mesentery vein thrombosis secondary to antithrombin III and protein c deficiency: a case report.

    Hypercoagulability is one of the causes of portal vein and superior mesentery vein thrombosis. We report a case of bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with portal vein and superior mesentery vein thrombosis secondary to antithrombin III and protein c deficiency. The patient presented with high fever for more than 3 weeks. Abdominal sonography revealed a liver cyst of 1.7 cm in diameter over segment 4 and a renal stone of 0.7 cm in size over the lower portion of the right kidney but no evidence of hydronephrosis. Elevation of liver enzymes was also noted. Intermittent fever was noted despite treatment with ceftriaxone and doxycycline. On Day 15 of hospitalization, blood culture revealed B. fragilis, which prompted further investigation of the source of intraabdominal and pelvic infection. Abdominal computed tomography revealed portal vein and superior mesentery vein thrombosis. Endoscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract showed no tumor or diverticulum. Study of coagulation factors disclosed deficiency of antithrombin III and protein C. Clinicians should remain aware of the need to promptly search for a portal or mesentery vein thrombosis in cases of Bacteroides bacteremia of unknown origin.
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19/144. Pulmonary thromboembolectomy in congenital antithrombin iii deficiency associated with acute pulmonary embolism -report of a case-.

    Antithrombin III (AT III) deficiency is a rare hereditary disease that predisposes to thromboembolic complications. We report a case of AT III deficiency complicated with acute pulmonary thromboembolism, successfully treated with emergency pulmonary thromboembolectomy after insertion of an inferior vena cava filter. AT III activity before treatment was found to be 44% of normal value and remained less than 50% of normal throughout the postoperative course. In his family line, both the patient's aunt and deceased father had a history of pulmonary infarction. AT III activity of the patient's aunt was 47 to 58% of normal value. The patient was discharged on the 15th day after surgery and has been doing well for four years receiving warfarin as anticoagulant therapy. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection of the recurrent pulmonary thromboembolism resulting in pulmonary hypertension and/or right heart failure.
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20/144. Treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with congenital deficiency of antithrombin III.

    The treatment course of all thromboembolic events in the patients with congenital deficiency of antithrombin III (AT III) in the national Swedish register was reviewed in order to assess the appropriate medical therapy in this situation. The medical treatment of 70 events of venous thromboembolism was evaluated. There were eight cases with signs of clinical progression. The risk of therapeutic failure with heparin could be as low as 1.5% or as high as 9.2%. It would not be cost-effective to substitute with concentrates of AT III in every case with congenital deficiency thereof in connection with acute venous thromboembolism. "heparin resistance" does not seem to be a problem in the vast majority of these patients.
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