Cases reported "Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic"

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1/296. Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula.

    Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula.
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2/296. Percutaneous fenestration of the aortic dissection membrane in malperfusion syndrome.

    We present two cases of malperfusion syndrome due to aortic dissection type-B. A supra-renal blind sac phenomenon resulted in renal failure and absent femoral pulses in both patients. Additionally, one patient suffered from spinal cord ischemia, the other from severe abdominal pain. By interventional techniques, catheter perforation of the blind sac was achieved. The resulting re-entries were enlarged with a balloon catheter. Distal perfusion without pressure gradients was restored by this technique in both patients and resulted in complete relief of symptoms. Percutaneous fenestration of the aortic dissection membrane may be an alternative to operative treatment in malperfusion syndrome.
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3/296. Typical presentation of intramural aortic haemorrhage (IAH) with evidence of intimal tear at MRI and angiography.

    A typical appearance of IAH was evidenced by CT and TEE in a 56-year-old hypertensive female suspected of developping classical acute aortic dissection (AAD). Further examination with MRI and aortography showed unequivocally the presence of an intimal tear in the aortic arch. This coexistence of intimal tear has never been evidenced preoperatively in patients with IAH. This observation demonstrates at the outset that IAH is part of the spectrum of AAD.
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4/296. Chronic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta presenting with right pleural effusion and left phrenic paralysis.

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with chronic dysphagia and lower back pain. Chest radiography revealed a wide mediastinal shadow and an elevated left diaphragm, which proved to be secondary to left phrenic paralysis. The patient was diagnosed with an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta and was admitted to the hospital. After the patient was admitted, the aneurysm ruptured into the right chest. The patient underwent an emergency operation to replace the ruptured segment with a synthetic graft. Postoperative recovery and follow-up were uneventful. This report describes an unusual presentation of a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis caused by compression of the phrenic nerve is an unusual complication that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.
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5/296. Type A aortic dissection involving a right-sided aortic arch.

    We report a rare case of a 39-year-old man with type A aortic dissection involving a right-sided aortic arch with the symptom of vascular ring. Computed tomography scanning and angiography were performed to define the extent of the dissection and the anatomy of the branching vessels. The ascending aorta was replaced through a median sternotomy and right thoracotomy using a hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass associated with selective cerebral perfusion and partial circulatory arrest, and his symptom of vascular ring disappeared postoperatively.
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6/296. Two-stage operation for multiple aneurysms of the thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and left common iliac artery in an octogenarian.

    Multiple aortic aneurysms are well described in the surgical literature. However, there are many problems related to surgical treatment of elderly patients with such aneurysms. This report presents the case, an octogenarian with multiple aortic aneurysms that were successfully treated by graft replacement. An 82-year-old man with a descending aortic aneurysm was referred to our institution for surgery. In addition to the previously diagnosed aneurysm, computed tomography and aortography showed an abdominal aortic aneurysm and a left common iliac aneurysm. Since the patient was an elderly man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a two-stage operation was performed. The abdominal aortic aneurysm and left common iliac aneurysm were resected first due to the risk of thromboembolism from the abdominal aortic aneurysm during surgery involving replacement of the descending aorta under femoro-femoral (F-F) bypass. Fifty-two days after the first operation, a second operation was performed to repair the descending aortic aneurysm. The postoperative course was uneventful. angiography after the operation showed satisfactory replacement of the multiple aortic aneurysms. The patient was discharged 25 days after the second operation.
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7/296. Acute traumatic dissection and blunt rupture of the thoracic descending aorta: A case report.

    Rupture of the thoracic aorta following blunt trauma is increasing in incidence and remains a highly lethal injury. Blunt traumatic rupture and acute dissection of the thoracic aorta is very rare. A 50-year-old man involved in a motor vehicle accident on March 3, 1998 was admitted to our hospital one and a half hours following the accident. On admission, he was alert and his hemodynamics were stable. Chest roentgenogram demonstrated a widened mediastinum and multiple left-sided rib fractures. Enhanced chest CT revealed a periaortic hematoma just distal to the isthmus, dissection of the descending thoracic aorta and mediastinal hematoma. With the diagnosis of thoracic aortic rupture and acute DeBakey type IIIB dissection, an emergency operation was performed. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram showed a mobile intimal flap and diminished caliber of the proximal descending aorta. Disruption and dissection of the descending thoracic aorta were found. Prosthetic graft interposition was accomplished with the aid of left atrium-left femoral artery bypass using a centrifugal pump and heparin-coated circuits and a blood collection device for blood conservation. The weak dissected aortic wall was glued and reapproximated with Gelatine-Resorcine-Formol glue. The postoperative course was uneventful.
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8/296. The spectrum of aortic complications after heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The connection between the donor and the recipient aorta is a potential source of early and late complications as a result of infection, compliance mismatch, and technical and hemodynamic factors. Moreover, the abrupt change in systolic pressure after heart transplantation involves the entire thoracic aorta in the risk of aneurysm formation. The aim of this study was to analyze the types of aortic complications encountered in our heart transplantation series and to discuss etiology, diagnostic approach, and modes of treatment. methods: Of the 442 patients having orthotopic heart transplantation and the 11 patients having heterotopic heart transplantation at our center, 9 (2%) sustained complications involving the thoracic aorta. These 9 patients were divided into four groups according to the aortic disease: acute aortic rupture (2 patients); infective pseudoaneurysm (3 patients); true aneurysm and dissection of native aorta (2 patients); and aortic dissection after heterotopic heart transplantation (2 patients). Surgical intervention was undertaken in 8. RESULTS: Five (83%) of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment for noninfective complications survived the operation, and 4 are long-term survivors. One patient who underwent a Bentall procedure 71/2 years after heterotopic heart transplantation died in the perioperative period of low-output syndrome secondary to underestimated chronic rejection of the graft. One patient with pseudoaneurysm survives without surgical treatment but died several years later of cardiac arrest due to chronic rejection. Both patients operated on for evolving infective pseudoaneurysm died in the perioperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Infective pseudoaneurysms of the aortic anastomosis are associated with a significant mortality. In noninfective complications, an aggressive surgical approach offers good long-term results. The possibility of retransplantation in spite of complex surgical repair should be considered in the late follow-up after heart transplantation, due to the increasing incidence of chronic rejection.
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9/296. Saccular descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with dysphagia.

    A 76 year old woman had suffered from chest pain, back pain, and dysphagia for 8 months. She was diagnosed as having a thoracic aortic aneurysm by chest X-ray and chest enhanced computed tomography. Simultaneously, severe dysphagia developed. Chest enhanced computed tomography and chest aortic aortography at our hospital demonstrated a saccular descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Esophagography demonstrated that the esophagus was compressed by the aneurysm; therefore, a graft replacement for the saccular descending thoracic aortic aneurysm was performed on February 17th, 1998. A left sided 6th intercostal approach was made, and graft replacement for the aneurysm using a 22 mm Hemashield prosthetic graft was performed under temporary bypass from the thoracic aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery and to the left femoral artery. The postoperative course was uneventful, the severe dysphagia improved dramatically, but a pleural effusion of 1000 ml collected 3 weeks after the operation. Surgical cases of saccular descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with dysphagia are rare, and with this in mind, we report this case to the the medical literature.
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10/296. Two cases of aorto-gastrointestinal fistula.

    We report two cases of aorto-gastrointestinal fistula. Case 1, a 60-year-old man, suffered from repeat hematemesis. He was preoperatively diagnosed as aortoesophageal fistula with thoracic aortic aneurysm and was successfully treated by graft replacement of the aneurysm. Case 2, a 73-year-old man, presented with massive gastrointestinal bleeding, yet repeat endoscopical examination did not reveal the origin of the bleeding. He died of catastrophic hematochezia. The pathological findings at autopsy revealed an aortoduodenal fistula. These two cases suggested the importance to consider an aorto-gastrointestinal fistula in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
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