Cases reported "Aortic Diseases"

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1/37. Aorto-bronchial fistula after implantation of a self-expanding bronchial stent in a patient with aortic dissection.

    We report a case of aorto-bronchial fistula after implantation of a self-expanding stent into the left main bronchus compressed by a dissected descending aorta. A 66-year-old female, who underwent Stanford type-B aortic dissection two years previously, was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a newly developed false lumen that originated from the ascending aorta and extended to the aortic bifurcation. She was unable to be weaned from the respirator after the graft replacement of the ascending aorta. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination revealed complete obstruction of the left main bronchus by extrinsic compression. A self-expanding nitinol stent was implanted in the left main bronchus five days after the operation. Her respiratory condition improved remarkably, allowing her to be successfully weaned from the respirator. Her clinical course was uneventful until she suddenly died from massive hemoptysis 20 days after stent implantation. A communication of 5 mm in diameter between the dissected descending aorta and the left main bronchus was seen at autopsy. Permanent application of a self-expanding nitinol stent to relieve extrinsic compression of a left main bronchus by a dissected descending aorta is not recommended because pressure necrosis might lead to fatal aorto-bronchial fistula.
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2/37. Endovascular repair of an aortoenteric fistula in a high-risk patient.

    PURPOSE: To describe the endovascular repair of an aortoenteric fistula in a high-risk patient. methods AND RESULTS: A Vanguard tube stent-graft was deployed at the upper anastomotic suture line of a secondary aortoenteric fistula, successfully sealing the communication between the aorta and the third part of the duodenum without occlusion of the renal arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular stent-graft repair of aortoenteric fistulae is possible, but further evaluation of this technique will determine its role in the management of this complication.
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3/37. Allograft aortic root replacement for aortic valve endocarditis with aortopulmonary fistula.

    Acute infective endocarditis affecting the aortic root and valve associated with development of a fistulous communication between the aorta and pulmonary artery was presented in a young Turkish girl. Emergency surgery was required. Operation consisted initially of closure of the defect on the main pulmonary artery with a pericardial patch. This was followed by allograft aortic root replacement.
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4/37. Aortopulmonary fistula after coarctation repair with Dacron patch aortoplasty.

    Fistulous communication between the aorta and the pulmonary parenchyma developed in a 38-year-old woman 19 years after repair of a congenital aortic coarctation with Dacron patch aortoplasty. The fistula, inducing intermittent hemoptysis, arose from the suture line between the prosthetic fabric and the aorta. There was no infectious background or aneurysm at the primary repair site. The aortic segment including the prosthetic patch was resected and replaced with a Dacron tubular vascular prosthesis.
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5/37. Primary aortoenteric fistula: report of six new cases.

    Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) is defined as a communication between the native aorta and the gastrointestinal tract, in contrast to secondary fistulas, which arise between a suture line of a vascular graft and the intestine. arteriosclerosis is the predominant cause of PAEF and accounts for more than two-thirds of the cases reported. The pathogenesis is usually based on direct adhesion of a segment of the gastrointestinal tract to an aortic aneurysm, followed by progressive erosion through the bowel wall. The clinical presentation is usually one of intermittent gastrointestinal haemorrhage resulting in lethal exsanguination. Pain in the abdomen, a pulsatile abdominal mass or fever may be present. The choice of various diagnostic procedures is often decided by the clinical presentation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound and CT scan may be useful in the evaluation of these patients. Current recommendations for repair include debridement of the aneurysmal aorta, repair with an in situ graft and primary repair of the gastrointestinal tract, followed by aggressive antimicrobial therapy. We present six cases of PAEF surgically treated at the St. Radboud Hospital, the Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital in Nijmegen and the Lukas Hospital in Apeldoorn over a period of 15 years.
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6/37. Primary aorto-esophageal fistula due to Takayasu's aortitis.

    BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal dilatation in Takayasu's arteritis is a recognized complication; however, fistula formation, especially to the esophagus, is very rare. methods: A 22-year-old male presented with severe hematemesis. Investigation by means of esophagogastroscopy and CT scan revealed a saccular aneurysm in the proximal descending aorta with communication to the esophagus. The patient was taken to theater, the aneurysm excised and replaced by a graft. RESULTS: Gross examination of the aneurysm showed multiple points of outpouching from the aneurysm. Histopathological examination of the showed marked intimal fibromyxoid thickening, loss of outer medial muscle and elastic fibers and marked fibrosis of the adventitial layer. The histological features were in keeping with Takayasu's arteritis. No evidence of tuberculosis was noted. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates an unusual complication of Takayasu's arteritis, in the form of a fistula between the aorta and the esophagus, which resulted in massive hematemesis and the ultimate demise of the patient.
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7/37. Recurrent hemoptysis due to aortobronchopulmonary fistula of false aortic aneurysm associated with repair of rupture of the sinus of valsalva.

    A 54-year-old man presented with recurrent hemoptysis of one year duration. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta. The aneurysm was intraoperatively found to have formed on the superior surface of the site of aortotomy suture placed during previous repair of rupture of the sinus of valsalva and to have a fistulous communication to the lung. CT and MRI were very useful in the diagnosis of the aneurysm as the cause of hemoptysis.
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8/37. Aortoenteric fistula to the sigmoid colon-case report.

    Aortoenteric fistula is defined as a communication between the aorta and any adjacent segment of the bowel. It may be primary or secondary. The former occurs de novo in patients with intestinal or vascular diseases, whereas secondary aortoenteric fistula is a rare and dreadful complication of aortic reconstruction with vascular prosthesis. We report a case of a 62-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with acute rectal bleeding. The patient had previous aortoiliac surgery with the utilization of an aorto-bifemoral vascular graft. diagnosis of secondary aortoenteric fistula was made between the aortoiliac graft and sigmoid colon. After exploratory laparotomy, Hartmann's procedure, excision of the graft, oversewing of the aortic stump, and axilobifemoral bypass were successfully performed. This study reports a rare type of secondary aortoenteric fistula to the left colon, and it describes an unusual and successful surgical treatment.
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9/37. Endovascular stent graft treatment of a traumatic aortocaval fistula.

    Aortocaval fistula (ACF) is an infrequently reported sequela of trauma. Most ACF have been repaired via an open approach. During the past 10 years, there has been one reported case of spontaneous ACF and two cases of traumatic ACF repaired using an endovascular technique. We present a third case of traumatic ACF repaired with an endovascular stent graft. A 40-year-old male sustained two gunshot wounds to the right chest and one to the right upper abdomen. He was taken from the emergency department directly to the operating room, where an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Through-and-through injuries to the stomach and transverse colon were repaired primarily. Subsequently, the patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. An urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed, revealing a nonbleeding hematoma on the posterior lateral surface of the right lobe of the liver, which was left undisturbed. Open abdominal management was instituted with vacuum pack closure. On the nineteenth hospital day, the patient again had a significant decrease in hematocrit. An aortogram was performed in order to evaluate the patient for intrahepatic arterial bleeding amenable to transcatheter embolization. There was no evidence of hepatic arterial bleeding. However, a supraceliac ACF was identified. The patient was taken to the operating room, and an AneuRx aortic extension cuff was advanced under fluoroscopy and deployed to cover the fistula. Completion angiography revealed total obliteration of the ACF and appropriate placement of the stent graft. Postoperatively, the patient was returned to the intensive care unit, where his hospital course was complicated by ventilator-associated pneumonia and sepsis. Repeat computed tomographic scanning 6 months and 1 year following this repair demonstrated patency of the graft without evidence of graft migration or aortocaval communication. Further research and experience are necessary with this technique regarding long-term outcome and technical aspects. In particular, the sizing problems associated with repair of acute traumatic ACF in emergency situations should be addressed. The endovascular approach provides an attractive and exciting alternative to traditional methods for repair of ACF.
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10/37. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to primary aortoduodenal fistula: report of two rare cases.

    Primary aortoduodenal fistulas are among the rare causes of gastrointestinal hemorrhage and are defined as communications between the native abdominal aorta and the duodenum. The mortality rate is very high if undiagnosed and untreated. Two male patients, 61- and 76-years-old, were admitted to the emergency unit at different times with the chief complaints of abdominal pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and pulsatile mass in their abdomen. The first case experienced sudden massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding while being prepared for an emergency operation in the intensive care unit, and cardiac arrest developed within a few minutes. After resuscitation and successful surgical operation, the patient woke up without any neurological defect or sequelae and was extubated at the 9th postoperative hour. The second patient, who had been wounded by gun shot 30 years previously was admitted to the hospital because of simple gastrointestinal hemorrhage. A para-aortic pseudo-aneurysm connected with the duodenum was diagnosed by computed tomography. After successful surgical operation, the patient was discharged. In this report, a case of ruptured primary aortic aneurysm and another case of para-aortic pseudo-aneurysm connected with the duodenum, both of which were treated successfully by surgical operation, are presented.
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