Cases reported "Aortic Diseases"

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1/74. Observations on the treatment of dissection of the aorta.

    The results are presented of treatment in twenty-three patients with dissection of the thoracic aorta, in four of whom it was acute (less than 14 days' duration), and in nineteen chronic (more than 14 days' duration). Sixteen patients had Type I and II dissection (involving the ascending aorta) and five Type III (descending aorta at or distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery); in two, dissection complicated coarctation of the aorta in the usual site. Thirteen patients had aortic regurgitation. Three of the patients with acute dissection were treated medically; two, both with Type I dissection, died, and the third, with Type III, survived. The remaining acute patient was treated surgically and also died. Of the patients with chronic dissection, eight were treated medically and eleven surgically. None of the medical group died in hospital; three died between 3 months and 1 year, and five have survived from periods of 12-72 months. Eleven patients with chronic dissection were treated surgically; four died in hospital at or shortly after operation; and the remaining seven lived for periods of 12-84 months. The presentation, indications for surgical treatment and results are discussed. It is concluded that surgical treatment of chronic dissection may carry a higher initial mortality than medical, but that there may be slightly better overall long term results in the former. As this series was not selected randomly, because patients with complications were selected for surgery, and there are only a few patients in each group, the results do not permit firm conclusion regarding the relative merits of medical and surgical treatment. It is suggested that all patients should initially be treated medically but that surgical treatment should be considered if the dissection continues, if aortic regurgitation is severe, if an aneurysm develops or enlarges, if cardiac tamponade develops or there is evidence of progressive involvement of the branches of the aorta. attention is drawn to the important syndrome of chronic dissecting aneurysm of the ascending aorta with severe aortic regurgitation which requires definitive surgical treatment and aortic valve replacement. The importance of adequate visualization of the origin and extent of the dissection as a preliminary to surgical treatment is stressed.
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2/74. Primary aorto-duodenal fistula secondary to infected abdominal aortic aneurysms: the role of local debridement and extra-anatomic bypass.

    Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to spontaneous rupture of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm into the duodenum is a rare and highly lethal clinical occurrence, representing roughly a third of all primary aortoduodenal fistulas. Diagnosis is problematic due to the subtleties in the clinical presentation and course, and surgical treatment is usually delayed, representing a challenge even for the experienced vascular surgeon. The overall mortality is over 30% and the operative approaches are still controversial. Two cases of ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysms complicated with aortoduodenal fistula were recently treated at our institution. Bacterial aortitis was documented by arterial wall cultures positive for klebsiella and salmonella species respectively. The clinical courses and outcomes of the two patients (one survivor ) treated with retroperitoneal debridement and extra-anatomic bypass and a review of the modern surgical treatment are herein described.
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3/74. The spectrum of aortic complications after heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The connection between the donor and the recipient aorta is a potential source of early and late complications as a result of infection, compliance mismatch, and technical and hemodynamic factors. Moreover, the abrupt change in systolic pressure after heart transplantation involves the entire thoracic aorta in the risk of aneurysm formation. The aim of this study was to analyze the types of aortic complications encountered in our heart transplantation series and to discuss etiology, diagnostic approach, and modes of treatment. methods: Of the 442 patients having orthotopic heart transplantation and the 11 patients having heterotopic heart transplantation at our center, 9 (2%) sustained complications involving the thoracic aorta. These 9 patients were divided into four groups according to the aortic disease: acute aortic rupture (2 patients); infective pseudoaneurysm (3 patients); true aneurysm and dissection of native aorta (2 patients); and aortic dissection after heterotopic heart transplantation (2 patients). Surgical intervention was undertaken in 8. RESULTS: Five (83%) of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment for noninfective complications survived the operation, and 4 are long-term survivors. One patient who underwent a Bentall procedure 71/2 years after heterotopic heart transplantation died in the perioperative period of low-output syndrome secondary to underestimated chronic rejection of the graft. One patient with pseudoaneurysm survives without surgical treatment but died several years later of cardiac arrest due to chronic rejection. Both patients operated on for evolving infective pseudoaneurysm died in the perioperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Infective pseudoaneurysms of the aortic anastomosis are associated with a significant mortality. In noninfective complications, an aggressive surgical approach offers good long-term results. The possibility of retransplantation in spite of complex surgical repair should be considered in the late follow-up after heart transplantation, due to the increasing incidence of chronic rejection.
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4/74. Laparoscopic aortic injury leading to delayed aortoenteric fistula: an alternative technique for repair.

    Complications of laparoscopic procedures occur in up to 10% of cases. The most lethal complication relates to injury of major retroperitoneal vascular structures. A case of aortoenteric fistula referred to the vascular surgical service 1 month following emergency repair of laparoscopic aortic injury is presented. A technique utilizing a saphenous vein panel graft for distal aortic repair is described. review of reported cases demonstrates that major retroperitoneal vascular injury during laparoscopy is rare, with a reported incidence of 3 to 10/10,000 procedures, and a mortality of up to 20%. Simple suture repair is the usual form of treatment, but specialized techniques are occasionally required.
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5/74. Aortoduodenal fistula presenting as acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding and recurrent syncope: case report.

    Aortoenteric fistula is a rare condition that may cause death in patients due to gastrointestinal bleeding. The duodenum is the most frequently involved site, at 78.5% of 191 cases by Nagy and Marshall's meta-analysis. It is characterized by the clinical triad of abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and an abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography is the most useful tool in detecting an aortoenteric fistula. To prevent a high mortality rate, early diagnosis is necessary. Exploratory laparotomy is required for patients who are highly suspected of having an aortoduodenal fistula. Herein, we report a 60-year-old man who suffered from acute gastrointestinal bleeding, recurrent syncope, and impending shock. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 6 cm longitudinal aneurysm in the infrarenal aorta. Emergency laparotomy was performed and revealed an aortoduodenal fistula in the fourth portion of the duodenum causing acute duodenal bleeding. The patient survived and has undergone 2 years worth of regular follow-up in our outpatient department.
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6/74. Aortoenteric fistula. A complication of renal artery bypass graft.

    The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to aortoenteric fistula has increased in recent years consequent to more frequent aortic reconstructive procedures. It is necessary to approach any such patient with this diagnostic consideration in mind, since early specific therapy may decrease the mortality. In this setting, there is usually sufficient time available to perform definitive tests to establish the correct diagnosis. We report a 37-year-old patient in whom aortoenteric fistula developed following a renal artery bypass graft.
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7/74. Acute occlusion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm--case report and review of the literature.

    Acute thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a surgical emergency. Only 44 cases have been reported in the literature. The mechanism of the thrombosis has not been delineated. The proposed etiologies include propagation of thrombus from distal artery occlusion, cardiac thromboembolism, and dislodgment of a mural thrombus. patients often present bilateral lower extremity ischemia, mimicking a saddle embolism. Systemic heparinization immediately after diagnosis and prompt surgical revascularization can reduce the mortality rate. The authors present a patient with sudden thrombosis of an AAA who was successfully treated with an axillobifemoral bypass graft. All published cases of thrombosed AAAs are analyzed.
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8/74. A novel approach to coronary revascularization in patients with severely diseased aorta.

    Atheromatous disease of the aorta significantly increases morbidity and mortality during coronary revascularization. The surgical approach must be modified for patients in whom this condition is identified. In this report, we describe a technique that uses bilateral internal thoracic arteries as composite grafts with reverse saphenous veins. The operation is performed without cardiopulmonary bypass. We report the cases of 2 patients who underwent this procedure. Neither patient experienced signs or symptoms of atheromatous embolization, and there was no perioperative morbidity or mortality. Off-pump myocardial revascularization using bilateral internal thoracic arteries is an attractive surgical approach for patients who have atheromatous aortas or other conditions in which it is advantageous to avoid aortic manipulation, cannulation, cross-clamping, and cardiopulmonary bypass.
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9/74. Endovascular stent-graft repair of primary aortocaval fistula with an abdominal aortoiliac aneurysm.

    A primary aortocaval fistula is present in less than 1% of all abdominal aortic aneurysms. Until recently, surgical repair was the only method of treatment and was associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. With the rapid development of aortic stent-graft technique, endovascular stent-graft repair may offer an alternative to the management of this often fatal condition. We report a case of an aortoiliac aneurysm with an aortocaval fistula successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafting. The unique hemodynamic changes, technical problems, and complications associated with this case are discussed, and the literature is reviewed.
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10/74. Major arterial occlusion by embolisation of an occult thrombus following thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction.

    We describe a case in which thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction resulted in a major arterial embolism from an existing aortic mural thrombus. Clinicians should be alert to this rare complication of thrombolytics, because timely diagnosis and treatment may prevent serious morbidity and mortality.
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