Cases reported "Aortic Diseases"

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1/263. Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula.

    Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula.
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2/263. In situ repair of a secondary aortoappendiceal fistula with a rifampin-bonded Dacron graft.

    Secondary aortoenteric fistulas remain challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Although the duodenum is most frequently involved, other intestinal segments are possible sites for fistulization. We report here a case of graft-appendiceal fistula revealed by recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding 11 years after abdominal aortic aneurysm replacement. The preoperative diagnosis was not achieved by endoscopy or imaging assessment. Despite recommended principles of total graft excision and extraanatomic bypass, appendectomy and in situ rifampin-bonded graft reconstruction were performed because of the advanced age and poor arterial runoff. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient remains well 17 months after operation.
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3/263. Typical presentation of intramural aortic haemorrhage (IAH) with evidence of intimal tear at MRI and angiography.

    A typical appearance of IAH was evidenced by CT and TEE in a 56-year-old hypertensive female suspected of developping classical acute aortic dissection (AAD). Further examination with MRI and aortography showed unequivocally the presence of an intimal tear in the aortic arch. This coexistence of intimal tear has never been evidenced preoperatively in patients with IAH. This observation demonstrates at the outset that IAH is part of the spectrum of AAD.
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4/263. Primary aorto-duodenal fistula secondary to infected abdominal aortic aneurysms: the role of local debridement and extra-anatomic bypass.

    Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to spontaneous rupture of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm into the duodenum is a rare and highly lethal clinical occurrence, representing roughly a third of all primary aortoduodenal fistulas. diagnosis is problematic due to the subtleties in the clinical presentation and course, and surgical treatment is usually delayed, representing a challenge even for the experienced vascular surgeon. The overall mortality is over 30% and the operative approaches are still controversial. Two cases of ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysms complicated with aortoduodenal fistula were recently treated at our institution. Bacterial aortitis was documented by arterial wall cultures positive for klebsiella and salmonella species respectively. The clinical courses and outcomes of the two patients (one survivor ) treated with retroperitoneal debridement and extra-anatomic bypass and a review of the modern surgical treatment are herein described.
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5/263. Subaortic obstruction after the use of an intracardiac baffle to tunnel the left ventricle to the aorta.

    Postoperative hemodynamic studies in five patients document subaortic obstruction after surgical repair utilizing an intracardiac baffle to establish continuity between the left ventricle and the aorta. Four of the patients had a Rastelli procedure for D-transposition of the great arteries with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis; one patient had repair of double outlet right ventricle with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. The left ventricular outflow was shown to be a long narrow tunnel by angiography in four of five patients and by echocardiography in one patient. Resting aortic peak systolic pressure gradient ranged from 10 to 42 mm Hg (mean 24). The obstruction was localized to the proximal end of the left ventricule to aorta tunnel (i.e., at the site of ventricular septal defect) in five patients. One patient with a gradient of 42 mm Hg has angina and decreased exercise tolerance. Subaortic obstruction is a newly described sequelae after the Rastelli procedure for transposition or repair of double outlet right ventricle. The obstruction may be hemodynamically significant and should be searched for at postoperative cardiac catheterization.
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6/263. The spectrum of aortic complications after heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The connection between the donor and the recipient aorta is a potential source of early and late complications as a result of infection, compliance mismatch, and technical and hemodynamic factors. Moreover, the abrupt change in systolic pressure after heart transplantation involves the entire thoracic aorta in the risk of aneurysm formation. The aim of this study was to analyze the types of aortic complications encountered in our heart transplantation series and to discuss etiology, diagnostic approach, and modes of treatment. methods: Of the 442 patients having orthotopic heart transplantation and the 11 patients having heterotopic heart transplantation at our center, 9 (2%) sustained complications involving the thoracic aorta. These 9 patients were divided into four groups according to the aortic disease: acute aortic rupture (2 patients); infective pseudoaneurysm (3 patients); true aneurysm and dissection of native aorta (2 patients); and aortic dissection after heterotopic heart transplantation (2 patients). Surgical intervention was undertaken in 8. RESULTS: Five (83%) of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment for noninfective complications survived the operation, and 4 are long-term survivors. One patient who underwent a Bentall procedure 71/2 years after heterotopic heart transplantation died in the perioperative period of low-output syndrome secondary to underestimated chronic rejection of the graft. One patient with pseudoaneurysm survives without surgical treatment but died several years later of cardiac arrest due to chronic rejection. Both patients operated on for evolving infective pseudoaneurysm died in the perioperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Infective pseudoaneurysms of the aortic anastomosis are associated with a significant mortality. In noninfective complications, an aggressive surgical approach offers good long-term results. The possibility of retransplantation in spite of complex surgical repair should be considered in the late follow-up after heart transplantation, due to the increasing incidence of chronic rejection.
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7/263. Aortocaval fistula complicating abdominal aortic aneurysm: diagnosis with gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography.

    With approximately 150 reported cases, fistulas between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava are rare. Preoperative clinical diagnosis of aortocaval fistula is difficult because the classical triad of abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass, and abdominal machinery-like bruit may be absent in up to 50 % of patients. We report a case of aortocaval fistula complicating abdominal aortic aneurysm which was diagnosed preoperatively using breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography.
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8/263. Combined resection of the thoracic esophagus and thoracic descending aorta.

    We conducted combined resection of the thoracic esophagus and thoracic descending aorta in 2 patients, one with advanced esophageal cancer with aortic invasion and the other aortoesophageal fistula caused by a false aortic aneurysm. Combined resection of esophageal tumor and adjacent involved organs was conducted in 14 patients with A3:T4 esophageal cancer but none survived 3 years and resecting tumor-invaded organs did not improve patient survival. One major problem of combined resection of the esophagus and aorta is contamination of the posterior mediastinum. In 1 patient, 2-stage surgery for the esophagus and in situ aortic replacement was conducted to reduce operative risk and avoiding infection of the prosthetic vascular graft. With thoracic descending aortic aneurysm adjacent to the esophagus on the increase, cardiovascular surgeons should prepared to undertake combined resection of both the aorta and esophagus.
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9/263. Intramural hematoma of the thoracic aorta in octogenarians: is non operation justified?

    OBJECTIVE: The prognostic factors and treatment options for thoracic aortic intramural hematoma are controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the most suitable treatment of this condition in very elderly patients. methods: In a review of the world literature, eight octogenarians with thoracic aortic intramural hematoma were found; to these the three cases reported here must be added. The descending thoracic aorta was involved in eight cases and the ascending/arch in three. RESULTS: In spite of patients' poor general conditions, the medical treatment group showed survival rates of 85.7% (descending) and 66.6% (ascending/arch), respectively. CONCLUSION: Extensive atherosclerotic changes of the aortic wall in the elderly, combined with control of hypertension, may probably prevent thoracic aortic intramural hematoma from progressing to dissection, with a favourable outcome. An earlier and more accurate preoperative diagnosis by modern diagnostic techniques, including spiral computed tomography (CT), as were performed in our own patients, will allow optimal treatment and increased patient survival.
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10/263. A review of aortopulmonary fistulas in aortic dissection.

    Aortopulmonary fistula is an exceedingly rare complication of aortic dissection. Only 4 cases in acute dissection and 8 cases in the chronic one have been published previously. We report the thirteenth case and a review of the literature. A man underwent an operation for type A aortic dissection. At surgery, a fistula was discovered between the false lumen and the main pulmonary artery, although the preoperative investigations did not suggest such a complication.
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