Cases reported "Aortic Rupture"

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1/78. Small ruptured abdominal aneurysm diagnosed by emergency physician ultrasound.

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms currently have a high rate of both mortality and misdiagnosis. Aneurysms smaller than 4 cm are not commonly considered for surgical repair. This report describes the case of a ruptured abdominal aneurysm measuring less than 4 cm diagnosed by the emergency physician utilizing bedside ultrasound. Within 30 minutes of arrival at the emergency department the patient's abdominal pain resolved spontaneously after defecation. If the bedside ultrasound had not been performed it is possible the patient would have been discharged from the hospital without surgical intervention. Bedside ultrasound by emergency physicians may improve the diagnosis of ruptured aortic aneurysms, particularly if the presentation is atypical.
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2/78. Primary aorto-duodenal fistula secondary to infected abdominal aortic aneurysms: the role of local debridement and extra-anatomic bypass.

    Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to spontaneous rupture of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm into the duodenum is a rare and highly lethal clinical occurrence, representing roughly a third of all primary aortoduodenal fistulas. diagnosis is problematic due to the subtleties in the clinical presentation and course, and surgical treatment is usually delayed, representing a challenge even for the experienced vascular surgeon. The overall mortality is over 30% and the operative approaches are still controversial. Two cases of ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysms complicated with aortoduodenal fistula were recently treated at our institution. Bacterial aortitis was documented by arterial wall cultures positive for klebsiella and salmonella species respectively. The clinical courses and outcomes of the two patients (one survivor ) treated with retroperitoneal debridement and extra-anatomic bypass and a review of the modern surgical treatment are herein described.
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3/78. Traumatic aortic rupture: delayed presentation with a normal chest radiograph.

    Traumatic aortic injury is a potentially fatal complication of blunt trauma. patients with this entity may have a constellation of signs and symptoms and frequently have other significant injuries. The diagnosis is often suspected through abnormalities on the presenting chest radiograph. Delay in diagnosis results in increased morbidity and mortality. This report details the delayed presentation of an ambulatory patient with traumatic aortic rupture and a normal chest radiograph.
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4/78. The spectrum of aortic complications after heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The connection between the donor and the recipient aorta is a potential source of early and late complications as a result of infection, compliance mismatch, and technical and hemodynamic factors. Moreover, the abrupt change in systolic pressure after heart transplantation involves the entire thoracic aorta in the risk of aneurysm formation. The aim of this study was to analyze the types of aortic complications encountered in our heart transplantation series and to discuss etiology, diagnostic approach, and modes of treatment. methods: Of the 442 patients having orthotopic heart transplantation and the 11 patients having heterotopic heart transplantation at our center, 9 (2%) sustained complications involving the thoracic aorta. These 9 patients were divided into four groups according to the aortic disease: acute aortic rupture (2 patients); infective pseudoaneurysm (3 patients); true aneurysm and dissection of native aorta (2 patients); and aortic dissection after heterotopic heart transplantation (2 patients). Surgical intervention was undertaken in 8. RESULTS: Five (83%) of 6 patients who underwent surgical treatment for noninfective complications survived the operation, and 4 are long-term survivors. One patient who underwent a Bentall procedure 71/2 years after heterotopic heart transplantation died in the perioperative period of low-output syndrome secondary to underestimated chronic rejection of the graft. One patient with pseudoaneurysm survives without surgical treatment but died several years later of cardiac arrest due to chronic rejection. Both patients operated on for evolving infective pseudoaneurysm died in the perioperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Infective pseudoaneurysms of the aortic anastomosis are associated with a significant mortality. In noninfective complications, an aggressive surgical approach offers good long-term results. The possibility of retransplantation in spite of complex surgical repair should be considered in the late follow-up after heart transplantation, due to the increasing incidence of chronic rejection.
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5/78. Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: A concurrent comparison of outcome of those occurring after endoluminal repair versus those occurring de novo.

    AIM: to compare the outcome of patients whose abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ruptured following endoluminal repair with those whose AAA ruptured prior to treatment. patients: over a 4-year period 434 patients underwent treatment for AAA with conventional open (n=253) and endoluminal repair (n=181). Of those having open repair, 216 patients had elective operations while 41 had operations for ruptured AAA. Four patients with ruptured AAA had undergone endoluminal repair previously (Group I) while the remaining 37 patients ruptured de novo (Group II). The patients in both groups were similar in age and sex but differed clinically. All four patients in Group I had major medical co-morbidities versus 56% in Group II (p<0.05). All patients in group I had a known endoleak following endoluminal repair. All patients underwent open repair. RESULTS: the proportion of patients presenting with hypotension in Group I (1/4) was significantly less than in Group II (30/37). The difference in 30-day mortality for Group I (0%) compared with that for Group II (43%) was significant. The four patients in Group I remain alive and well at follow-up 22 months after operation. The outcome for Group I was better than Group II despite the higher incidence of medical co-morbidities. CONCLUSION: endoluminal AAA repair complicated by a persistent endoleak does not protect from rupture, which may not be accompanied by such major haemodynamic changes and high mortality as rupture de novo. Further long-term results in more patients are required to confirm this intermediate level of protection.
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6/78. Blunt thoracic aortic injuries: initial evaluation and management.

    In at least one large study, the average time from arrival at the emergency department to arrival in the operating room was nearly 6 hours. That 30% of survivors will die in the same amount of time underscores the need for rapid diagnosis and treatment. In blunt thoracic aortic injury, beta-blockers have been shown to reduce the incidence of rupture, and their use is rarely contraindicated. A working knowledge of the mechanisms of injury likely to produce this lesion, commonly associated injuries, clinically relevant and easily recognizable chest film findings, and appropriate use of beta-blockade can have a significant impact on mortality. Any physician responsible for evaluation of trauma patients should be familiar with this information.
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7/78. Aneurysm rupture after endovascular repair using the AneuRx stent graft.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the cause and frequency of aneurysm rupture after endovascular aneurysm repair. methods: We reviewed each patient who sustained aneurysm rupture among all patients enrolled for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair in phases I, II, and III of the US AneuRx Multicenter clinical trial from June 1996 through October 1999. RESULTS: A total of 1067 patients were enrolled for endovascular aneurysm repair. The AneuRx stent graft was successfully implanted in 1046 patients (98%). Endovascular repair was unsuccessful in 21 patients (2%); 13 patients (1%) were converted to open aneurysm repair. Among these, two patients (0.2%) sustained aneurysm rupture due to procedure-related instrumentation and underwent open surgical conversion. Aneurysm rupture has occurred in seven patients (0.7%) 3 weeks to 24 months (mean, 16 months) after successful endovascular repair. Four patients survived open surgical repair, and three patients died within 30 days. overall rupture-related mortality was 0.5% and included late deaths after rupture. Before rupture, two patients had endoleak and aneurysm enlargement, and five patients had no endoleak and no aneurysm enlargement. After aneurysm rupture all seven patients had evidence suggesting that there was poor fixation of the stent graft at the proximal distal, or iliac junction fixation sites. The two patients with endoleak declined recommended open surgical or endovascular repair, which could have prevented aneurysm rupture. In retrospect, the five patients without endoleak could potentially have avoided rupture with better patient selection, better stent graft positioning, or reinforcement of fixation points with stent graft extenders. The probability of no aneurysm rupture for all patients undergoing endovascular repair is 0.996 /- 0.002 at 1 year and 0.974 /- 0.011 at 2 years by life table analysis with the longest follow-up of 41 months. CONCLUSION: The early risk of aneurysm rupture after endovascular aneurysm repair is low. However, the possibility of rupture persists even in patients with no endoleak after the procedure. Therefore, all patients treated with endovascular aneurysm repair should continue to be monitored after the procedure. patients with evidence suggesting insecure stent graft fixation should undergo further endovascular treatment or open surgical repair.
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8/78. Primary aortoduodenal fistula complicated by abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    A 74-year-old male patient was operated in Vakif Gureba Hospital for aortoduodenal fistula developing from abdominal aortic aneurysm. The patient was diagnosed as abdominal aortic aneurysm after physical examination and computed tomography in another center. Appearing of melena and hematemesis gastroduodenoscopy and radionuclide scanning was performed as diagnosis. After 6 days gastrointestinal bleeding recurred in massive haemorrhage and the patient was operated with a diagnosis of aortoenteric fistula as emergency. A midline laparotomy was performed. There was a fistula between infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (with diameter 8x10 cm) and the 3rd portion of the duodenum. The duodenum was resected segmental and the fistula was disconnected. Following aneurysmotomy a prosthetic graft was placed in the aortobiiliac position. The patient was discharged at the 42nd postoperative day. Primary aortoenteric fistula is a very rare consequence of untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm. The segments of intestine most frequently involved in aortoenteric fistula are the 3rd and 4th portions of the duodenum. Clinical presentation is recurrent episodes of gross gastrointestinal haemorrhage. These cases have high mortality and morbidity unless evaluated as quickly as possible and appropriate surgical intervention performed.
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9/78. Intraoesophageal rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    The intraoesophageal rupture of a large thoracic aortic aneurysm is reported in a 49 year old man. He had been hypertensive for some years while the aneurysm increased in size. Although a graft was successfully inserted to repair the leak, infection from the oesophagus with candida albicans, subsequently led to secondary haemorrhage and death 17 days later. A plea is made for the earlier referral of patients with aneurysm prior to rupture, as the operative mortality rises markedly after rupture has occurred and in this case the situation was virtually irreparable.
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10/78. Ruptured mycotic thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: a report of three cases and a systematic review.

    We report three cases of ruptured mycotic thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAS) and a review of the literature. escherichia coli and streptococcus pneumoniae (2 patients) were the responsible organisms. Surgical management consisted of wide debridement of necrotic tissue and in situ repair with a Dacron graft. Antibiotics were administered intravenously in the hospital and continued orally after discharge for at least 6 weeks, until clinical and laboratory parameters were normalized. A review of the literature showed that Gram-negative microorganisms are found in 47% of mycotic TAAAs. A trend toward increased mortality for these organisms, compared with Gram-positive microorganisms, was observed (P =.09). Lifelong antimicrobial therapy is controversial. No difference in survival or recurrence rate was found between series advocating lifelong therapy and those suggesting prolonged (6 weeks to 12 months) therapy (median follow-up period, 18 and 19 months, respectively). In situ repair with synthetic material can be successful if prompt confirmation of infection is obtained, all possibly infected tissue is resected, and antibiotic therapy based on sensitivity data is administered for a prolonged period. A short-term survival rate as high as 82% can be expected with this strategy, but data on long-term survival rates are limited. polytetrafluoroethylene-expanded grafts, homografts, and antibiotic-bonded grafts may offer advantages over Dacron grafts, but data are insufficient to draw conclusions. Careful long-term follow-up is an important element of the treatment of these patients. We suggest antibiotic treatment until biochemical parameters of inflammation (white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or c-reactive protein) return to normal and a computerized tomography scan every 3 months for 1 year, then annually.
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