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1/222. Syphilitic aortic regurgitation. An appraisal of surgical treatment.

    During the 10 years from 1964 to 1973, fifteen patients with severe syphilitic aortic regurgitation were treated surgically at the National Heart Hospital. In thirteen the valve was replaced and in two it was repaired. In addition four had replacement of an aneurysmal ascending aorta with a Dacron graft and seven some form of plastic repair to the coronary ostia. Three patients died within 1 month of surgery and a further six during the follow-up period which varied from 1 to 55 months (mean 25-5). The six survivors have been followed-up for an average of 33 months. Factors contributing to this high mortality were analysed and it was found that the mean duration of effort dyspnoea was 22 months in the survivors compared with 48 months in those who had died. Similarly the average duration of nocturnal dyspnoea was 4 months in the survivors compared with a mean of 8 months in those who had died. Only six out of the fifteen patients had angina; this was present in two of the survivors and in four of the fatalities. The pulse pressure, heart size, and haemodynamic findings were similar in the two groups. The prognostic value of an elevated erythocyte sedimentation rate was also examined. It was concluded that preoperative investigations should include aortography, coronary arteriography, an assessment of left ventricular function, and whenever possible myocardial biopsy. These data were interpreted as suggesting that patients should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage in the disease--certainly before the onset of cardiac failure and--and that if this more aggresive attitude was adopted, as it has been in non-syphilitic cases of aortic valve disease, the present high mortality in this group would be reduced.
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2/222. Double valve repair and maze procedure for degenerative valvular disease and chronic atrial fibrillation.

    A 61-year-old male with degenerative aortic valve regurgitation, mitral valve regurgitation and chronic atrial fibrillation underwent a combined reparative procedure consisting of aortic valve repair, mitral valve repair and maze procedure. Surgery was successful and postoperatively the patient is in NYHA class I, without anticoagulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of this combined reparative surgery. As advances are made in valve repair surgery, it is expected that similar combined procedures will be performed more frequently in future. The benefits of avoiding valve replacement and anticoagulation after such combination treatment is discussed.
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3/222. Surgical treatment for a supra sinotubular junctional saccular aneurysm associated with aortic regurgitation.

    We reported a patient with a saccular ascending aortic aneurysm located just above the non-coronary sinotubular junction. The aneurysm produced severe aortic regurgitation and two episodes of cardiac tamponade. By intraoperative inspection, the border between the aneurysmal wall and non-dilated portion of the normal aortic wall was distinct, and the aortic valve leaflets and aortic annulus appeared normal. Aortic valve dysfunction appeared to be caused by dilation of the noncoronary sinotubular junction and mild distortion of the noncoronary sinus because of the aneurysmal formation. We performed patch closure of the aneurysmal ostium and repaired the dilated noncoronary sinotubular junction. Postoperative echocardiography and aortography demonstrated a good coaptation of the aortic valve leaflets with trivial aortic regurgitation. Although a rupture site, dissection or carcinomatous pericarditis which is attributable to the two episodes of cardiac tamponade could not be found, pathologic examination of the aneurysm wall revealed intramural blood leakage between the mucoid degenerated media and notably thickened adventitia. In addition, there was thinning and interruption of the elastic fibers of the media. These findings are consistent with a leaking aneurysm which cause the slow development of cardiac tamponade.
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4/222. Shunt control of bleeding after homograft replacement of the ascending aorta.

    Homograft replacement of the ascending aorta with replacement of the coronary arteries often is accompanied by significant postoperative bleeding from the suture lines that often requires a second exploratory operation. These events occur despite a meticulous operative technique and pharmacologic hemostatic agents. We used hemostatic material to cover the homograft as patch to create a watertight seal and placed a left-to-right shunt to control bleeding.
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5/222. Severe aortic regurgitation immediately after mitral valve annuloplasty.

    We report a case of severe aortic regurgitation occurring immediately after the insertion of a mitral annuloplasty ring. On transesophageal echocardiography, regurgitation was found to originate from the retracted left coronary cusp. On direct examination, part of the aortic wall was folded, but no suture could be identified. It was reasoned that tension created by the ring caused the retraction. The problem was corrected by releasing three sutures on the ring. Postoperative course was uneventful.
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6/222. Aortic valve replacement in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    A patient with aortic regurgitation and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura underwent a successful valve replacement. Cardiac surgery requiring a cardiopulmonary bypass in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura can be safely carried out with the preoperative intravenous administration of high-dose gammaglobulin, which may thereby reduce the need for either perioperative transfusion or prophylactic splenectomy.
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7/222. Ventricular thrombus and subarachnoid bleeding during support with ventricular assist devices.

    We report the case of a 23-year-old man with acute aortic valve insufficiency caused by endocarditis, who after emergency aortic valve replacement developed biventricular heart failure. The heart failure was treated with temporary assist devices. Subarachnoid bleeding and thrombus obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract was detected. The postoperative course is presented with special emphasis on management of subarachnoid bleeding and the simultaneous use of anticoagulation necessary for ventricular assist devices.
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8/222. Aortic valve replacement after retrosternal gastric tube reconstruction for esophageal cancer.

    A 59-year-old man with a history of the thoraco-abdominal esophagus resection with retrosternal gastric tube reconstruction for esophageal cancer complicated by anastomosis leakage and purulent pericarditis was admitted for aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis. Floppy vegetation and worsening cardiac failure indicated aortic valve replacement. In a median sternotomy approach, the thickest adhesion between the cervical esophagus and posterior surface of the manubrium sternae was freed using an ultrasonic osteotome. Severe adhesions in the pericardium due to purulent pericarditis were found. Median sternotomy enabled minimal exposure of the aortic root, upper right atrium, and right superior pulmonary vein for instituting extracorporeal circulation and replacing the aortic valve. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. For cardiac surgery in patients with a retrosternal gastric tube, left anterior or right thoracotomy may be considered to avoid gastric tube injury. Median sternotomy, however, is an alternative enabling safe heart exposure, and the ultrasonic osteotome was very useful in incising the sternum without injuring the cervical esophagus, which had no serosa.
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9/222. Cryopreserved aortic homograft replacement in a patient with Takayasu's arteritis.

    A patient with severe long-standing Takayasu's arteritis underwent successful replacement of the aortic root and ascending aorta with a cryopreserved aortic homograft. Her postoperative course was uneventful and echocardiography demonstrated evidence of neither aortic regurgitation nor graft detachment more than 2 years after the operation. Magnetic resonance image demonstrated no signs of graft enlargement.
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10/222. Aortic valve replacement for aortic regurgitation in a patient with primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    A 42-year-old woman with the diagnosis of aortic regurgitation was admitted to hospital for surgical treatment. Ten years ago, primary antiphospholipid syndrome had been diagnosed, and she had a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions and deep vein thrombosis. She was suffering from moderate exertional dyspnea and chest pain. Catheter investigation revealed progressive dilatation of the left ventricle and a deterioration of the ejection fraction. The aortic valve was excised and replaced with a mechanical valve. A specimen of the aortic valve showed localized thickening and shrinkage of the midportion and base of each cusp, with vegetation on the surface. These localized, specific findings suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the cardiac valve pathology in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. No hemostatic or thromboembolic problems were encountered after the surgery, and her postoperative course was uneventful.
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