Cases reported "Aortic Valve Stenosis"

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1/163. Discrete subaortic valvular stenosis: the clinical utility and limitations of transesophageal echocardiography.

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a useful technique in the diagnosis and intraoperative assessment of discrete subaortic stenosis (DSS). It allows clear visualization of the subaortic membrane, which may be missed by transthoracic echocardiography, differentiates DSS from other causes of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and accurately detects the presence of associated aortic regurgitation and bacterial endocarditis. Limitations in its use include inadequate visualization of the left ventricular outflow tract by TEE in the presence of a prosthetic mitral valve or mitral annular calcification, and improper alignment of the Doppler cursor across the outflow tract.
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2/163. Recurrent endocarditis in silver-coated heart valve prosthesis.

    BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to prevent prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), the implantation of a new silver-coated sewing ring has been introduced to provide peri- and postoperative protection against microbial infection. methods: A 56-year-old woman with aortic stenosis had elective replacement with a St. Jude Medical mechanical valve fitted with a silver-coated sewing ring (Silzone). The patient developed early PVE, which necessitated reoperation after one month. Despite a second Silzone prosthesis being implanted, the endocarditis recurred. During a third operation an aortic homograft was implanted, and after six months a fourth operation was performed for a pseudoaneurysm at the base of the homograft, in proximity to the anterior mitral valve leaflet. RESULTS: The diagnosis of PVE was confirmed by the presence of continuous fever, transesophageal echocardiography and growth of penicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis from the valve prosthesis. CONCLUSION: The implantation of all prosthetic valves is encumbered with a risk of endocarditis. Although silver has bacteriostatic actions, the advantages of silver-coated prostheses in the treatment of this condition have yet to be assessed in clinical trials.
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3/163. Dynamic obstruction, an unusual complication after aortic valve replacement with a stentless porcine valve.

    In the early nineties, the stentless porcine aortic bioprosthesis has been reintroduced successfully. Because of the limited experience, knowledge of clinical complications is limited. Therefore, we describe an unusual complication of dynamic obstruction after aortic valve replacement with a stentless porcine valve in a 70 year old man 18 months after implantation. We discuss the complications of stentless aortic prostheses known so far, describe operative techniques used and their characteristic two dimensional echocardiographic images.
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4/163. Fatal bacterial endocarditis following aortic valve replacement in a patient being treated with methotrexate.

    A 41-year-old man being treated with methotrexate for psoriasis underwent aortic valve replacement. He subsequently developed fulminating bacterial endocarditis. Bacterial endocarditis occurs in 1-2% of cases after prosthetic valve replacement and has a high mortality. The long-term use of methotrexate and similar drugs is increasing in conditions such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, more patients undergoing heart valve surgery will be taking these preparations for coexisting disease. As methotrexate increases the risk of infection, its perioperative use in these patients requires further evaluation.
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5/163. Early fungal endocarditis in homograft recipients.

    Retrospective analysis of 200 homograft valve recipients at our institution revealed two cases of fungal endocarditis. Pathogenesis appears to be related to either recipient seeding in one elderly immunocompromised patient or a previously contaminated donor valve implanted in an otherwise healthy recipient. Therefore, our experience underscores the need for both meticulous prevention of fungal infection preoperatively in the recipient and elimination of previously contaminated homograft valves from the donor pool.
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6/163. extracorporeal membrane oxygenation discontinuation despite technically successful reoperation: A case report.

    death remains a probable outcome of pediatric cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) despite increasing efforts to improve the results. On venoarterial ECMO, in an obviously hopeless situation, the decision to withdraw a life supporting measure resulting in the sudden death of a child places a heavy burden on the team. After valvulotomy of critical aortic stenosis in a prenatally diagnosed term neonate, ECMO had to be installed during postoperative resuscitation. Despite technically successful homograft implantation while on ECMO complicated by postoperative bleeding, advancing multiorgan failure resulted in ECMO withdrawal. As shown in this case report, exact termination criteria are lacking but are necessary to prevent increasing team and resource related conflicts in pediatric cardiac ECMO.
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keywords = operative
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7/163. Multiple left-sided cardiac lesions in one of Noonan's original patients.

    We describe a complex case of obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract in one of Dr. Noonan's original patients. Intraoperative findings revealed pathology at the valvar, subvalvar and supravalvar positions. patients with noonan syndrome are traditionally described as having right-sided cardiac pathology. review of the literature revealed left-sided lesions to occur in a substantial number of these patients. We therefore suggest the routine employment of cardiac ultrasonography in all patients with noonan syndrome with attention directed toward left-sided pathology, as well as the frequent pulmonary valvar pathology.
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8/163. Pulmonary vein atresia with Shone's anomaly in an infant: a case report.

    We report a case of individual pulmonary vein atresia associated with multiple levels of left heart obstruction, including aortic coarctation, valvular aortic stenosis, and parachute mitral valves with stenosis. The diagnosis of pulmonary vein obstruction is likely to be missed in patients who also have other left heart obstructive diseases, since the latter usually dominates the clinical presentation. We diagnosed the existence of individual pulmonary vein atresia preoperatively via cardiac catheterization. The pulmonary artery angiograms revealed back and forth motion of the dye with no visualization of either a capillary or venous phase on the lesion side. The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was unevenly elevated and highest on the lesion side. The results were later confirmed by operation and autopsy. Thus, selective pulmonary artery catheterization and angiography remains a good diagnostic tool to rule out the existence of pulmonary vein obstruction in cases which have multiple levels of left heart obstruction.
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9/163. Living related donor liver transplantation in a patient with severe aortic stenosis.

    We report the successful anaesthetic management of a young girl with Alagille's syndrome and severe aortic stenosis (resting pressure gradient 88 mm Hg) undergoing living related donor liver transplantation (LRDLT). The patient had end-stage liver disease and LRDLT was performed before replacement of the aortic valve. Anaesthesia was conducted uneventfully with the aid of a pulmonary artery catheter. intra-aortic balloon pumping was used in the perioperative period for protection against myocardial ischaemia. Total clamping of the inferior vena cava was avoided during surgery and volume administration was guided by the pulmonary artery pressure. A stable circulation was maintained in the reperfusion period. The patient was discharged from hospital on day 54 after operation with normal liver function. Two years later her aortic valve was replaced successfully.
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10/163. Acute adrenal insufficiency after cardiac surgery.

    adrenal insufficiency after cardiac surgery can easily be confused during the course of an immediate unstable postoperative period. If unrecognized, this condition may cause serious morbidity and can be fatal. We report on a 43-yr-old female patient with chronic known adrenal insufficiency, who, despite her adequate preoperative replacement therapy, presented with one episode of acute hypoadrenal crisis after elective open heart surgery, which could serve as a model to illustrate the salient clinical features and possible problems in this setting for diagnosing this problem to patients in whom chronic adrenal insufficiency remains unknown.
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