Cases reported "Aphasia, Broca"

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1/6. Training agrammatic subjects on passive sentences: implications for syntactic deficit theories.

    We trained two subjects with chronic agrammatic aphasia on production of passive sentences using a computerized, iconic-based communication system. After training, one of the subjects demonstrated significant improvements in his abilities to comprehend and verbally produce English passive voiced sentences, including sentences with conjoined subjects and objects. These results suggest that agrammatism does not represent a fixed syntactic deficit.
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keywords = communication
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2/6. Training and generalization of expressive syntax in nonfluent aphasia.

    Generalization of treatment effects remains a consistent goal of clinicians who treat aphasic adults. Specifically, various types of stimulus/response generalization designs are available, depending on the level of generalization desired. We have reviewed training matrices designed to elicit gestural subject-plus-verb targets and treatment studies designed to answer more global questions regarding treatment efficacy. As Kearns (1989) so eloquently states, "clinical accountability cannot, in fact, be fully achieved without documentation of communication skills trained in the clinic generalized to other settings and situations." Although the studies cited and data reviewed in this article did not meet this standard specifically, an attempt was made to provide a brief prelude to the data now emerging in the aphasiology literature. Additionally, with an increasing data base in the literature specific to generalization, more efficacious treatment paradigms will be made available. Clinicians treating aphasic adults thus should have the opportunity to choose the treatments shown to be most effective for a specific type and severity of aphasia.
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keywords = communication
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3/6. Processing of visual syntax in a globally aphasic patient.

    A globally aphasic patient was trained on a computerized visual communication system. His ability to comprehend reversible locative prepositional phrases after training was studied and compared with the performance of Broca's aphasics on a similar task. This patient's ability to generalize symbols for actions was also investigated. The results demonstrate our patient's capacity to master a formal visual syntax in the absence of natural language and illustrate how this capacity may be used successfully in a visual communication system. A problem in generalizing symbols for actions is demonstrated, suggesting that certain heuristic and cueing capabilities in the approach may be helpful.
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ranking = 2
keywords = communication
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4/6. Resumption of gainful employment in aphasics: preliminary findings.

    We report preliminary data on aphasic patients who, in spite of their language problems, have succeeded in finding a reasonably satisfactory occupational resettlement. patients who: (a) still had a moderate to sever aphasia, (b) had resumed a gainful employment requiring interpersonal communication, were recalled for a check-up and assessed with: (1) a comprehensive aphasia test: (2) a semistructured interview including detailed questioning about the type and reaction to aphasia, the type of work before the onset of aphasia, the type of current work with particular emphasis on the patients' compensatory mechanisms and emotional reactions. Results comprise 10 cases up to date. One case is described in detail. Findings indicate that the ability to resume a gainful occupation is often greater than could be expected on the sole basis of formal language examination. Findings are discussed from a neuropsychological, social and rehabilitation point of view.
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keywords = communication
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5/6. The labeling problem in aphasia: an illustrative case.

    Twenty-five "experts" on neurogenic motor speech disorders participated in a tutorial exercise. Each was given information on M, a patient who had communication difficulties as the result of stroke, and asked to complete a questionnaire about his problem. The information included a detailed case description, an audiotape of M's speech obtained at 4, 9, 13, and 17 days post-stroke, and test results from the Western aphasia Battery, the Token Test, and a battery for apraxia of speech. The experts were in excellent agreement on M's primary problem, although it was called by seven different names. The experts were in poor agreement on his secondary problem(s), e.g., the presence and type of aphasia and dysarthria. The results suggest that labeling is difficult, even for "experts." Furthermore, the practicing clinician needs to be sensitive to the likelihood of more than one coexisting problem.
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keywords = communication
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6/6. Comparison of the performances of a fluent and a nonfluent aphasic on a pantomimic referential task.

    The pantomimic performances of a typical Broca's (nonfluent) and Wernicke's (fluent) aphasic were compared with each other and with four normal control subjects on a simple task of nonverbal referential communication. Both aphasic subjects demonstrated only about 50% accuracy in their pantomimic communication. Also, measures were obtained of the motoric fluency of the pantomimes of all subjects and comparisons were made between the fluent and nonfluent aphasics. These measures demonstrated distinct differences in the fluency patterns of the pantomimes of the two aphasic subjects similar to the differences in speech fluency which distinguish and characterize these two types of aphasia; that is, the fluent aphasic pantomimed fluently and like the control subjects and the nonfluent aphasic pantomimed nonfluently. The quantitative and qualitative similarities in the fluency patterns of the speech and the pantomimic behaviors of the aphasic subjects are discussed in terms of their implications for a definition of aphasia.
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keywords = communication
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