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1/7. An autopsy case of Alzheimer's disease presenting with primary progressive aphasia: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    This report describes an autopsied Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) as an early symptom. The patient developed a progressive speech disturbance at the age of 70 years, and difficulty in comprehension became apparent 2 years later. magnetic resonance imaging scan disclosed asymmetrical brain atrophy, predominantly on the left temporal lobe. At the age of 74 years, the patient's dementia rapidly progressed with parkinsonism and he died after a disease duration of 6 years. At autopsy, the brain showed a marked temporo-frontal lobe atrophy, predominantly on the left side. There was severe neuronal loss with gliosis and tissue rarefaction in the atrophied cerebral cortex and amygdala. Many neurofibrillary tangles with neuropil threads were found in the cerebral cortex. Numerous amyloid deposits were distributed throughout the cerebral cortex, accompanied by amyloid angiopathies. This patient was clinically diagnosed with temporal lobe-dominant Pick's disease, although the possibility of corticobasal degeneration was made. The neuropathological diagnosis was AD with asymmetrical brain atrophy and widespread amyloid angiopathies.
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2/7. Prominent hypometabolism of the right temporoparietal and frontal cortex in two left-handed patients with primary progressive aphasia.

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive deterioration of language function with relative preservation of other cognitive functions. Previous studies based on neuroimaging and histology point to predominantly left temporal pathology in PPA patients. Here we report two left-handed subjects with typical symptoms of the nonfluent form of PPA in whom 18F-FDG PET revealed an asymmetric right-hemispheric pattern of reduced glucose metabolism in the frontal and temporoparietal cortex. These findings support the hypothesis that PPA can be considered as a symptom complex rather than a disease entity.
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3/7. Progressive supranuclear palsy presenting with primary progressive aphasia--clinicopathological report of an autopsy case.

    We report a Japanese autopsy case of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The male patient was 74 years old at the time of death. At age 64, he developed non-fluent aphasia that progressed slowly over 8 years, eventually associated with behavioral abnormality, postural instability, and dysphagia at 2 years prior to his death. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at age 73 demonstrated marked atrophy of the frontal lobes, particularly on the left side. Neuropathological examination revealed the typical pathology of PSP: loss of neurons, gliosis, occurrence of neurofibrillary tangles, oligodendroglial coiled bodies, and tuft-shaped astrocytes in the frontal cortex, associated with argyrophilic threads in the underlying white matter, in the basal ganglia, including the thalamus, globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus, and in the brainstem nuclei, including the substantia nigra, pontine nucleus, and inferior olivary nucleus. No astrocytic plaques or ballooned neurons were observed. Protein analysis revealed accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau of 68 and 64 kDa consisting of the four repeat tau isoforms. We conclude that the present case represented PSP with an 8-year history of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Although focal cortical symptoms in PSP are rare or absent, we should keep in mind the possibility of atypical PSP in which cortical pathology is predominant, particularly in the frontal lobe, and could result in PPA.
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4/7. A case of cortical deafness and anarthria.

    Generally, cortical deafness is not complicated by anarthria and cortical anarthria does not affect auditory perception. We report a case of simultaneous progressive cortical deafness and anarthria. At the age of 70 years, the patient, a woman, noticed hearing problems when using the telephone, which worsened rapidly over the next 2 years. She was then referred to our hospital for further examinations of her hearing problems. Auditory tests revealed threshold elevation in the low and middle frequencies on pure-tone audiometry, a maximum speech discrimination of 25% and normal otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem, middle- and long-latency responses. An articulation test revealed abnormal pronunciation. Because of these problems only written and not verbal communication was possible; her ability to read and write was unimpaired. She showed no other neurological problems. brain MRI demonstrated atrophic changes of the auditory cortex and Wernicke's language center and PET suggested low uptake of (18F) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose around the Sylvian fissures in both hemispheres. Neurologically, the patient was suspected of having progressive aphasia or frontotemporal dementia. Her cortical deafness and anarthria are believed to be early signs of this entity.
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5/7. A case of primary progressive aphasia with abnormally ubiquitinated neurites in the cerebral cortex.

    We report the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a patient with primary progressive aphasia and abnormally ubiquitinated neurites in the cerebral cortex. Neuropathological examination showed severe neuronal loss and astrocytosis with a spongy change in the frontal cortex and neostriatum. immunohistochemistry for ubiquitin antibody showed many immunoreactive dystrophic neurites in the superficial layer of the affected cortices and putamen. Those neurites were neither argentophilic nor stained with other antibodies against neurofilament, tau, or microtubule-associated protein-2. There were no neuropathological changes characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-ubiquitin antibody showed inclusions in the dendrites, consisting mainly of granular and filamentous material. These pathological features, unusual in primary progressive aphasia, indicate the neuropathological heterogeneity of this disease condition.
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6/7. Corticobasal degeneration with primary progressive aphasia and accentuated cortical lesion in superior temporal gyrus: case report and review.

    A 57-year-old woman showed progressive sensory aphasia as an initial symptom, and then developed total aphasia within 6 years and, finally, severe dementia. Neuropathologically, the cerebral cortex was most severely affected in the superior and transverse temporal gyri, and subsequently in the inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the pars opercularis. The degeneration in the subcortical grey matter was most severe in the substantia nigra, and it was moderate to mild in the ventral part of thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum. Cytopathologically, in addition to achromatic ballooned neurons, massive taupositive types of cytosekeletal abnormalities were observed both in neurons and glia, mainly in the degenerating region. This cytoskeletal pathology coincided with that reported in corticobasal degeneration (CBD). On Bodian staining, only a few neurofibrillary tangles were found in the entorhinal pre-alpha layer and substantia nigra. Pick's bodies and senile plaques could not be found. This case is thought to represent a type of CBD, but with its cortical lesion focus located in the speech area instead of the frontoparietal region. A survey of 28 pathologically evaluated cases of CBD revealed two similar cases, both of which began with progressive aphasia and presented cortical degeneration in the superior temporal gyrus. An overview of CBD cases clarified the features in another group of cases, in which the cerebral accentuated focus was shifted forward from the central region, clinically resembling Pick's disease. The clinical manifestations in CBD seem to be the expression of these diverse cortical lesions. Primary progressive aphasia may include cases of CBD with involvement of the language center.
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7/7. Autosomal dominant progressive syndrome of motor-speech loss without dementia.

    This patient report describes a 68-year-old man with progressive dissolution in motor-speech without concomitant language or cognitive decline, with presumed autosomal dominant inheritance. Motor-speech impairments included marked difficulty in articulating words and in coordinating articulation, phonation, and respiration. brain imaging results revealed severe focal atrophy of the posterior frontal region extending to the anterior parietal and superior temporal regions bilaterally on structural (MRI) and functional (single photon emission computed tomography) brain imaging studies. The involved neural substrate represented the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex (supplementary motor area), and the postcentral gyrus. Familial history included similar difficulties in his mother, her sister, and his own sister. The isolated involvement of the motor-speech processes alone indicated that this syndrome was distinguishable from progressive aphasia associated with prominent loss of language and from Alzheimer's disease.
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