Cases reported "Aphasia"

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11/53. When ottoman is easier than chair: an inverse frequency effect in jargon aphasia.

    This paper presents evidence of an inverse frequency effect in jargon aphasia. The subject (JP) showed a pre-disposition for low frequency word production on a range of tasks, including picture naming, sentence completion and naming in categories. Her real word errors were also striking, in that these tended to be lower in frequency than the target. reading data suggested that the inverse frequency effect was present only when production was semantically mediated. It was therefore hypothesised that the effect was at least partly due to the semantic characteristics of low frequency items. Some support for this was obtained from a comprehension task showing that JP's understanding of low frequency terms, which she often produced as errors, was superior to her understanding of high frequency terms. Possible explanations for these findings are considered.
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12/53. Phonologically related lexical repetition disorder: a case study.

    Errors of repetition in aphasia are most often nonword substitutions. Phonologically related lexical errors, or formal errors, are real-word substitutions that overlap with target words in sound. In the present research we present the case of an aphasic patient, MMB, who produced an unusually high rate of formal paraphasias in repetition. Six experiments were conducted to investigate the combination of impairments contributing to MMB's pattern of repetition and to test the predictions made by two theories of formal errors. MMB's formal errors in repetition were influenced by target frequency, but not by target length or imageability. Formal errors tended to be more frequent than their targets and showed greatest phonological overlap with targets at initial consonant. These findings provided partial support for Martin and Saffran's fully interactive spreading activation account of formal errors and did not support Blanken's phonological interactive encoding account. In Experiment 6, the effect on repetition of increasing auditory verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) demands was examined using a paired word repetition experiment. Under these conditions, MMB produced semantic paraphasias for the first time, providing strong support for the Martin-Saffran hypothesis that phonologically related, and semantic, lexical repetition disorders lie on a continuum of severity moderated by the degree of AVSTM impairment.
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keywords = frequency
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13/53. Evaluation and outcome of aphasia in patients with severe closed head trauma.

    In this study long-term observation of 12 patients with aphasia secondary to severe closed head trauma took place. The most frequent symptoms were amnestic aphasia and verbal paraphasia. Only one patient with a constant slow wave EEG focus in the dominant hemisphere had severe receptive symptoms. In all other patients the aphasia recovered rather well, though not totally, but the presence and degree of concomitant neuropsychological disorders were most important for the final outcome.
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ranking = 0.13661636392428
keywords = wave
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14/53. Mechanisms underlying perseveration in aphasia: evidence from a single case study.

    Aphasic individuals often inappropriately and unintentionally repeat recent responses, errors termed recurrent perseverations. In a series of picture naming experiments, we investigated the impact of manipulating stimulus factors on the number of perseverations produced by an aphasic patient (E.B.) with markedly impaired naming skills. E.B. produced significantly more perseverations to pictures with low frequency names and following stimulus repetition. In contrast, semantic relatedness and presentation rate failed to influence perseveration. Our results are considered in the context of theories that relate recurrent perseverations to intact priming mechanisms [brain 121 (1998) 1641; Aphasiology 12 (1998) 319; J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 19 (1993) 243]. We conclude that these theories can correctly predict some but not all aspects of E.B.'s perseverations. In particular, they failed to predict that: (1) perseverations often appeared to reflect the earlier sequential proximity of stimuli and responses; and (2) perseverations became less likely as more experimental trials intervened, a trend that did not interact with presentation rate. We review evidence relating recurrent perseverations to neuromodulatory deficits and we conclude that a theory of the functional role of neuromodulation in the cerebral cortex proposed by Hasselmo [Neural Netw. 7 (1994) 13] is capable of accounting for all aspects of E.B.'s perseverative behavior.
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keywords = frequency
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15/53. wegener granulomatosis with aphasia.

    wegener granulomatosis, a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that characteristically involves the respiratory tract and the kidneys, may affect the nervous system. Despite the relative frequency of neurologic manifestations, there has not been a single report of wegener granulomatosis manifesting as a cerebral vascular accident. Our patient had limited wegener granulomatosis with aphasia as the symptom that was observed first. A dramatic recovery occurred after corticosteriod and cytotoxic therapy.
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keywords = frequency
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16/53. landau-kleffner syndrome beginning with stuttering: case report.

    landau-kleffner syndrome is marked by an acquired aphasia in children who have had normal language and motor development. A 3.5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic with stuttering. She was diagnosed as having benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy at 3.5 months of age and treated with valproic acid. Her electroencephalogram (EEG) returned to normal at the end of the first year. The therapy was stopped after a 2-year seizure-free period. She started to stutter prominently 3 months after the discontinuation of antiepilepsy drugs. She had no verbal agnosia. Her EEG revealed multiple spike and wave discharges. She was diagnosed as having landau-kleffner syndrome. Her previous epilepsy history had contributed to her having obtained an EEG in the early period. We suggest that if a child with normal language function starts to stutter, landau-kleffner syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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keywords = wave
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17/53. Syllables as units in speech production: Data from aphasia.

    The syllable has received considerable empirical support as a unit of processing in speech perception, but its status in speech production remains unclear. Some researchers propose that syllables are individually represented and retrieved during phonological encoding (e.g., Dell, 1986; Ferrand, Segui, & Grainger, 1996; MacKay, 1987). We test this hypothesis by examining the influence of syllable frequency on the phonological errors of two aphasics. These individuals both had an impairment in phonological encoding, but appeared to differ in the precise locus of that impairment. They each read aloud and repeated 110 pairs of words matched for syllabic complexity, but differing in final syllable frequency. Lexical frequency was also controlled. Neither aphasic was more error-prone on low than on high frequency syllables (indeed, one showed a near-significant reverse effect), and neither showed a preference for more frequent syllables in their errors. These findings provide no support for the view that syllables are individually represented and accessed during phonological encoding.
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ranking = 0.36363636363636
keywords = frequency
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18/53. Continuous focal spikes during REM sleep in a case of acquired aphasia (landau-kleffner syndrome).

    We report a girl 3 years and 6 months old with onset of aphasia at age 3 years and 3 months. There was no evidence of brain damage and there were no seizures. The neuropsychological evaluation showed that the girl tended to be right-handed, that aphasia was global and that other higher cortical functions seemed to be preserved. Isolated spikes and spikes-and-wave were recorded during wake over the right temporal region with rare independent contralateral abnormalities. During polysomnography (PSG), the physiological patterns of sleep were preserved and right temporal epileptiform discharges were significantly increased in all sleep stages. Maximal activation was obtained at sleep onset and during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods, when focal abnormalities became continuous and spread contralaterally. Repeat PSGs showed that the activation profile retained this particular trait, although subclinical discharges tended to increase during slow wave sleep (SWS). This pattern of subclinical temporal status epilepticus during REM sleep differs from the characteristic activation profile found in the syndrome of continuous spikes-and-waves during SWS. However, this profile was transient and all epileptiform changes disappeared during clinical recovery at 18 months of follow-up.
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ranking = 0.40984909177284
keywords = wave
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19/53. Semantic errors in naming, repetition, spelling and drawing from memory: a new Italian case.

    Semantic errors in aphasic patients are frequent and their study has helped understanding the structure and processing of the lexical/semantic system. Most of the patients with semantic errors in reading and writing are English-speaking and it has been argued that this depends on the type of the orthographic systems: in opaque orthographies semantic errors are more frequent than in transparent orthographies. The paper reports the case of an Italian patient, AM, with semantic damage and semantic errors in comprehension and production tasks, except reading aloud. AM was also impaired in non-word repetition and writing but his reading of non-words was only mildly impaired. The absence of semantic errors in reading and the co-occurring absence of severe damage to the non-lexical reading route is consistent with interaction between lexical and non-lexical processing. The discussion addresses the question of the relative frequency of semantic errors in reading and writing tasks in languages with different types of orthographies.
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ranking = 0.090909090909091
keywords = frequency
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20/53. aphasia as the sole manifestation of simple partial status epilepticus.

    aphasia due to simple partial status epilepticus is rare, particularly in the absence of a seizure history. No previous report describes acute aphasia as the sole clinical manifestation of EEG-monitored status epilepticus, with prompt resolution with treatment. We report a 45-year-old man with a left temporal glioblastoma who acutely developed a global aphasia, during which an EEG revealed continual repetitive sharp waves emanating from the left hemisphere. After injection of i.v. diazepam, the EEG seizure activity ceased, and the patient's language output returned to preseizure levels.
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ranking = 0.13661636392428
keywords = wave
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