Cases reported "Apnea"

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1/41. Suxamethonium and mivacurium sensitivity from pregnancy-induced plasma cholinesterase deficiency.

    A fit 36-year-old parturient received a general anaesthetic for manual removal of a retained placenta. She underwent rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia with suxamethonium, shortly followed by 10 mg of mivacurium. One hour later she had failed to establish adequate ventilation despite administration of drugs to reverse neuromuscular blockade. A provisional diagnosis of suxamethonium-related apnoea was made and her lungs were ventilated overnight on the intensive care Unit. plasma cholinesterase levels at the time were reduced to one-third of normal, with normal dibucaine and fluoride numbers. One month later her levels were back within the reference range.
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keywords = block
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2/41. Postoperative apnoea following nivalin administration.

    Four patients developed postoperative apnoea after neuroleptanalgesia, and were given Nivalin whilst in an apnoeic state to reverse residual neuromuscular block. Neuromuscular transmission was monitored by a peripheral nerve stimulator, and recurarization was not observed. Central respiratory depression was the cause of postoperative apnoea. The possible mechanisms and the mode of prevention are stated in this paper.
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keywords = block, nerve
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3/41. Can a dose of 2microg.kg(-1) caudal clonidine cause respiratory depression in neonates?

    A case of multiple life-threatening postoperative apnoeas in a term neonate undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy and orchidopexy who received light inhalation anaesthesia combined with caudal block with 1 ml.kg-1 ropivacaine 0.2% plus 2 microg.kg-1 clonidine is reported. The patient showed no apparent risk factors for postanaesthetic apnoea. Oxycardiorespirography five days after surgery only showed minor abnormalities. clonidine though administered caudally in the usual dose of 2 microg.kg-1 appeared to be the most likely cause for postanaesthetic apnoea in this neonate.
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4/41. optic nerve coloboma, Dandy-Walker malformation, microglossia, tongue hamartomata, cleft palate and apneic spells: an existing oral-facial-digital syndrome or a new variant?

    We report on a female infant with postaxial polydactyly of the hands, preaxial polydactyly of the right foot, cleft palate, microglossia and tongue hamartomata consistent with an oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFDS). The patient also had optic nerve colobomata, a Dandy-Walker malformation, micrognathia and apneic spells. This combination of clinical features has not been previously reported. This patient either expands the clinical features of one of the existing OFDS or represents a new variant. A review of the literature highlights the difficulties in making a specific diagnosis because of the different classification systems that exist in the literature.
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ranking = 0.97039009912863
keywords = nerve
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5/41. Unusual arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern in an adult presenting with apneic spells and normal pressure hydrocephalus--case report.

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus, lower cranial nerve pareses, and pyramidal and cerebellar signs associated with respiratory disturbances. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4.7 x 5.4 cm quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst causing severe compression of the tectum and entire brain stem, aqueduct, and cerebellum, associated with moderate dilation of the third and lateral ventricles. Emergency surgery was undertaken due to sudden loss of consciousness and impaired breathing. The cyst was totally removed by midline suboccipital craniotomy in the prone position. Postoperatively, her symptoms improved except for the ataxia and impaired breathing. She was monitored cautiously for over 15 days. CT at discharge on the 18th postoperative day revealed decreased cyst size to 3.9 x 4.1 cm. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of the arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern. The patient died of respiratory problems on the 5th day after discharge. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts may compress the brain stem and cause severe respiratory disturbances, which can be fatal due to apneic spells. patients should be monitored continuously in the preoperative and postoperative period until the restoration of autonomous ventilation is achieved.
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ranking = 0.19407801982573
keywords = nerve
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6/41. Unexpected prolonged neuromuscular block after mivacurium: a case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case of unexpected prolonged apnoea following the administration of mivacurium, a short-acting muscle relaxant and to identify the factors for early diagnosis and management. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 19-year-old physically fit lady without personal or family history suggestive of anaesthetic problems had an excision of fibro-adenoma from the breast. She did not recover as quickly as was expected from the anaesthetic, which included the administration of mivacurium. She had prolonged neuromuscular blockade. She was kept ventilated and sedated. Five hours after the last dose of mivacurium, she showed signs of spontaneous respiration and at 6 h she was extubated and fully recovered. It was shown later that the patient had a pseudocholinesterase deficiency. CONCLUSION: pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an uncommon occurrence but should be highly suspected in cases of prolonged paralysis following the administration of a short-acting muscle relaxant. The use of a nerve stimulator is recommended whenever muscle relaxants are used. Muscle relaxants should be used only when facilities for prolonged ventilation are available.
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ranking = 5.1940780198257
keywords = block, nerve
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7/41. Anaesthetic management in a neonate with congenital complete heart block.

    We present the case of a neonate undergoing surgery on the first day of life for the installation of a permanent pacemaker because of the existence of congenital complete heart block (CCHB) with a basal heart rate of 43 b.min(-1) and minimal elevation after initiating an isoproterenol perfusion. The intervention was under general anaesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and spontaneous ventilation. The principal anaesthetic goals were to assure adequate anaesthesia, with haemodynamic and respiratory stability, to maintain the best possible heart rate and to avoid postoperative respiratory depression or apnoea.
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keywords = block
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8/41. Prolonged neuromuscular blockade as a result of malnutrition-induced pseudocholinesterase deficiency.

    Mivacurium is a short-acting neuromuscular blocking drug, ideal for short surgical procedures. The brief duration of action depends on rapid hydrolysis by plasma cholinesterase. An inherited or acquired deficiency of plasma cholinesterase can prolong the effect of mivacurium. We present an unusual case of unanticipated postoperative apnea following mivacurium administration, as a result of acquired plasma cholinesterase deficiency, in a patient with previous uneventful exposure to both mivacurium and suxamethonium (succinylcholine).
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keywords = block
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9/41. Parasympathetic hyperresponsiveness and bradyarrhythmias during apnoea in hypertension.

    Voluntary end-expiratory apnoea in a 23-year-old asymptomatic mild hypertensive patient consistently elicited bradyarrhythmias (complete heart block and sinus pause) and sympathetic activation to muscle blood vessels, indicating simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during apnoea. The sympathetic bradyarrhythmic response to apnoea was potentiated by hypoxia and eliminated by atropine. baroreflex activation also attenuated the bradycardic response to apnoea. A 43-year-old hypertensive patient with sleep apnoea also exhibited bradyarrhythmias (sinus arrest for up to 10 s) and a fall in perfusion pressure to less than 50 mmHg during episodes of sleep apnoea. These cardiovascular changes were associated with a reduction in oxygen saturation to levels as low as 35%. Neither patient was on any medication. Simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during episodes of apnoea may predispose to cardiovascular catastrophe. These chemoreflex mediated autonomic changes are inhibited by baroreflex activation. We propose that patients with impaired baroreflexes (patients with hypertension or heart failure and premature infants) may be especially susceptible to excessive autonomic responses to chemoreflex stimulation during periods of apnoea. In these patient groups, bradyarrhythmias, hypoxia, hypoperfusion and sympathetic activation during apnoea may predispose to sudden death.
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keywords = block
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10/41. A lethal association of congenital apnea with brainstem tegmental necrosis.

    We present a female with premature birth, polyhydramnios, congenital apnea, cranial nerve palsies, orofacial and limb anomalies. neuroimaging revealed calcifications along the vental margin of the caudal fourth ventricle. Neuropathologic findings at postmortem examination were consistent with brainstem tegmental necrosis and olivary hypoplasia, a rare lethal entity that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital apnea.
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ranking = 0.19407801982573
keywords = nerve
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