Cases reported "Apnea"

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1/38. Cardiac asystole in partial seizures.

    literature review shows many anecdotal case reports of cardiac asystole in ictal recordings of partial seizures. We have reviewed our data from the last five years, of patients who are being assessed for epilepsy surgery and found 2 out of more than 1,500 complex partial seizures, recorded in 589 consecutive patients, showing a significant period of asystole (13 and 15 seconds). Our previous studies of cardiac and respiratory parameters during partial seizures showed that a central apnoea occurred in 39%. It is probable that sudden death during seizures is due to the interaction of both cardiac and respiratory irregularities. Although rare (occurrence < 0.15%), the possibility of cardiac asystole occurring in an epilepsy monitoring unit highlights the need for resuscitation equipment to be readily available and for trained nursing staff. Furthermore, it is important to recognize that the semiology of seizures may be affected by the consequences of secondary cardiac asystole.
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2/38. pneumothorax and pneumoperitoneum during the apnea test: how safe is this procedure?

    apnea test is a crucial requirement for determining the diagnosis of brain death (BD). There are few reports considering clinical complications during this procedure. We describe a major complication during performing the apnea test. We also analyse their practical and legal implications, and review the complications of this procedure in the literature. A 54 year-old man was admitted for impaired consciousness due to a massive intracerebral hemorrhage. Six hours later, he had no motor response, and all brainstem reflexes were negative. The patient fulfilled American Academy of neurology (AAN) criteria for determining BD. During the apnea test, the patient developed pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and finally cardiac arrest. apnea test is a necessary requirement for the diagnosis of brain death. However, it is not innocuous and caution must be take in particular clinical situations. Complications during the apnea test could be more frequent than reported and may have practical and legal implications. Further prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the frequency and nature of complications during this practice.
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3/38. Failure of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in cases of sudden infant death.

    We describe two cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and one case of apparent life threatening apnoea where resuscitation was attempted by the mouth-to-mouth route. This was associated with evidence of gastric distension, including reflux of milk into the airway in the first two cases. In the second case the mother used mouth-to-mouth breathing after finding that she could not cover her baby's nose-and-open-mouth with her mouth. In the last case, the mother went on to try the mouth-to-nose route, with a good outcome. Systematic documentation of the route of resuscitation and its outcome in all cases of SIDS and near-miss SIDS may provide valuable insights into the optimal route for infant resuscitation.
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ranking = 5
keywords = death
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4/38. Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea and sudden infant death.

    The sudden infant death syndrome has multiple etiologies. Some congenital myasthenic syndromes can cause sudden infant death syndrome by apnea, but the frequency of this etiology is unknown. We report here a young patient with sudden respiratory crises culminating in apnea followed by recovery, against a background of no or variable myasthenic symptoms without dyspnea. One sib without myasthenic symptoms and one sib who only had mild ptosis died previously during febrile episodes. Studies reported by us elsewhere traced the proband's illness to mutations in choline acetyltransferase. Here, we describe in detail the morphologic investigations and electrophysiologic findings, which point to a presynaptic defect in acetylcholine resynthesis or vesicular filling, in the proband. Analysis of dna from a sib who previously died of sudden infant death syndrome revealed the same choline acetyltransferase mutation. Thus, mutations in choline acetyltransferase may be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome as, theoretically, could other presynaptic myasthenic disorders.
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ranking = 8
keywords = death
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5/38. bradycardia preceding apneic attacks in low-birthweight infants. The relationship and management.

    Two premature infants had frequent episodes of prolonged apnea. The apneic spells were not due to the more commonly known causes of apnea in infancy, but were consistently preceded by severe bradycardia. atropine or ephedrine produced favorable therapeutic results. Since severe bradycardia may be a cause of sudden death in infants, its recognition and treatment is important in the management of apneic infants.
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6/38. Parasympathetic hyperresponsiveness and bradyarrhythmias during apnoea in hypertension.

    Voluntary end-expiratory apnoea in a 23-year-old asymptomatic mild hypertensive patient consistently elicited bradyarrhythmias (complete heart block and sinus pause) and sympathetic activation to muscle blood vessels, indicating simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during apnoea. The sympathetic bradyarrhythmic response to apnoea was potentiated by hypoxia and eliminated by atropine. baroreflex activation also attenuated the bradycardic response to apnoea. A 43-year-old hypertensive patient with sleep apnoea also exhibited bradyarrhythmias (sinus arrest for up to 10 s) and a fall in perfusion pressure to less than 50 mmHg during episodes of sleep apnoea. These cardiovascular changes were associated with a reduction in oxygen saturation to levels as low as 35%. Neither patient was on any medication. Simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during episodes of apnoea may predispose to cardiovascular catastrophe. These chemoreflex mediated autonomic changes are inhibited by baroreflex activation. We propose that patients with impaired baroreflexes (patients with hypertension or heart failure and premature infants) may be especially susceptible to excessive autonomic responses to chemoreflex stimulation during periods of apnoea. In these patient groups, bradyarrhythmias, hypoxia, hypoperfusion and sympathetic activation during apnoea may predispose to sudden death.
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7/38. brain death: timing of apnea testing in primary brain stem lesion.

    In a 73-year-old patient complete areflexia of the cerebral and peripheral nerves following the rupture of an aneurysm of the basilar artery was diagnosed. During apnea testing the spectral analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) revealed an irreversible shift of peak from 6 to 3 Hz within the low-frequency bands. These findings suggest that apnea testing in patients with primary lesion of the brain stem should be carried out only after an isoelectric EEG.
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ranking = 4
keywords = death
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8/38. sleep apnea and Q-T interval prolongation--a particularly lethal combination.

    We have discovered a 20-day-old infant who possessed anatomic evidence of chronic hypoxemia with right ventricular hypertrophy and who died in hypoxic hypoxemia with a postmortem PO2 of 4 mm. Hg. Subsequently, and ECG was discovered which had been obtained at one day of age and showed Q-T interval prolongation along with T-wave alternation. We believe this case to be one of the first to substantiate the mechanism for SIDS as proposed by Schwartz, 26 with hypoxia acting synergistically with a prolonged Q-T interval causing sudden unexpected death in this infant--providing a link between cardiac and respiratory mechanisms of death.
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ranking = 2
keywords = death
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9/38. Insomnia-coma and auto-electrocution complicating general anesthesia. Incidental factors which also cause cerebral, respiratory and cardiac arrest.

    Whatever induces general anesthesia, i.e. cerebral arrest, tends to cause respiratory and cardiac arrest also. However, general anesthesia does not necessarily exclude nor block all other mechanisms which can provoke one or more of these three phenomena. Amongst many such more or less equipotent factors are intracranial, intrapleural, intra-abdominal and intratracheal pressures. These mechanical factors occurring but unrecognized in surgical patients cause puzzling complications including, insomnia, coma and unexpected sudden death.
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10/38. Cyanotic breath-holding spell: a life-threatening complication after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma.

    Cyanotic breath-holding spell is a benign and self-limiting disease of young children but occasionally associated with sudden, unexpected death. The authors report a rare case in a 2-year-old girl with a severe form that started after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma. She was admitted to our hospital because of delayed and unstable gait. Since magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervicomedullary tumor, she underwent a radical resection and histology showed the tumor to be a ganglioglioma. Postoperatively, the function of the lower cranial nerves and cerebellum deteriorated and hemiparesis on the left became apparent, but she returned to the preoperative state in a few months. In addition, mild sleep apnea (Ondine curse) and severe cyanotic breath-holding spells occurred. The former responded to medication but the latter failed and continued several times per day with a rapid onset and progression of hypoxemia, loss of consciousness, sweating and opisthotonos. Five months after the operation, the patient returned home with a portable oxygen saturation monitor equipped with an alarm. This case indicates that cyanotic breath-holding spell, as well as sleep apnea, is critical during the early postoperative period. This is the first report observing that such spells may occur as a complication of radical resection of a cervicomedullary tumor.
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