Cases reported "Apraxias"

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1/6. The use of a digital voice output device to facilitate language development in a child with developmental apraxia of speech: a case study.

    PURPOSE: The study aimed at describing the language and communication abilities of a child diagnosed with Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS), who used a Macaw Digital voice output device. METHOD: This case study describes the training of a mother in the use of a Macaw digital voice output device to give her child with DAS access to higher levels of language functioning. It also provides longitudinal information pertaining to the child's school progress in the three years following the implementation of the device. RESULTS: Results indicate that the use of a digital device is useful in facilitating communication and language development in a young child with DAS. Specific evidence of an increase in the cognitive complexity of questions directed at the child is provided, as well as an increase in the number of questions directed to the child. Regarding the child's responses, it was noted that appropriate answers increased, as did the number of communication modalities and communication attempts. Longitudinal data indicates that the child was able to maintain these positive impacts. CONCLUSIONS: Digital voice output devices can be used as a method to facilitate higher cognitive functioning and has various positive impacts on the functioning of a child with DAS. These devices need to be considered as a tool to facilitate the development of communication and speech development for this population.
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keywords = communication
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2/6. Speech and language impairment and oromotor dyspraxia due to deletion of 7q31 that involves FOXP2.

    We report detailed clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a girl with a deletion of chromosome 7q31-q32. This child has a severe communication disorder with evidence of oromotor dyspraxia, dysmorphic features, and mild developmental delay. She is unable to cough, sneeze, or laugh spontaneously. Her deletion is on the paternally inherited chromosome and includes the FOXP2 gene, which has recently been associated with speech and language impairment and a similar form of oromotor dyspraxia in at least three other published cases. We hypothesize that our patient's communication disorder and oromotor deficiency are due to haploinsufficiency for FOXP2 and that her dysmorphism and developmental delay are a consequence of the absence of the other genes involved in the microdeletion. We propose that this patient, together with others reported in the literature, may define a new contiguous gene deletion syndrome encompassing the 7q31-FOXP2 region. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of this region should be considered for other individuals displaying similar characteristics.
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keywords = communication
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3/6. The occurrence of developmental apraxia of speech in a mild articulation disorder: a case study.

    Although Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) often is considered a severe communication disorder, speech-language pathology literature supports the idea that DAS also can be exhibited in children with mildly disordered articulation. The case study is that of an elementary age client with a seemingly mild "r" articulation problem but who also presented characteristics consistent with DAS. awareness of the possible presence of DAS when assessing and planning remediation for clients exhibiting mild articulation problems could increase the effectiveness of our professional services to these children.
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keywords = communication
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4/6. The labeling problem in aphasia: an illustrative case.

    Twenty-five "experts" on neurogenic motor speech disorders participated in a tutorial exercise. Each was given information on M, a patient who had communication difficulties as the result of stroke, and asked to complete a questionnaire about his problem. The information included a detailed case description, an audiotape of M's speech obtained at 4, 9, 13, and 17 days post-stroke, and test results from the Western aphasia Battery, the Token Test, and a battery for apraxia of speech. The experts were in excellent agreement on M's primary problem, although it was called by seven different names. The experts were in poor agreement on his secondary problem(s), e.g., the presence and type of aphasia and dysarthria. The results suggest that labeling is difficult, even for "experts." Furthermore, the practicing clinician needs to be sensitive to the likelihood of more than one coexisting problem.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = communication
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5/6. Facilitating communication skills in adult apraxics: application of Blissymbols in a group setting.

    This report describes the use of Blissymbols over a period of 8 mo with four adult aphasic patients who also exhibit severe verbal apraxia. The areas investigated include the patients' ability to use Blissymbols as a facilitating technique for communication, the capacity for learning Blissymbols, attitudes toward the use of Blissymbols, and the ability to learn Blissymbols in a group setting. Our results indicate that candidates with good auditory comprehension, good visual-perceptual skills, and a high level of motivation are more successful in using Blissymbols as a facilitating technique. Blissymbols are found to encourage verbal language and writing skills, even though not stressed. The group therapy approach provides needed motivation and proves beneficial.
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keywords = communication
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6/6. Paradoxically greater interhemispheric transfer deficits in partial than complete callosal agenesis.

    Symptoms of interhemispheric disconnection are typically much less severe in callosal agenesis than after surgical section of the corpus callosum. Sperry [Sperry, R. W., Plasticity of neural maturation. developmental biology, 1968, 2 (Suppl.), 306-327.] has attributed this difference to two interconnected factors: (1) the callosal section is usually performed after the brain has lost the maximal degree of functional plasticity associated with the early stages of development and (2) the removal of an already formed structure is more disruptive for functional brain organization than the failure of the same structure to develop. It has been suggested that functional compensation is less efficient if callosal agenesis is partial rather than complete [Dennis, M., Impaired sensory and motor differentiation with corpus callosum agenesis: A lack of callosal inhibition during ontogeny? Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 455-469.]. This suggestion is supported by the present findings of partial left-hand anomia, partial left-field alexia and poor tactile cross-localization in a subject with a congenital absence of the posterior part of the corpus callosum due to an arteriovenous malformation. In agreement with many previous studies, similar, though more severe, symptoms of interhemispheric disconnection were found in a subject with a complete section of the corpus callosum, but not in a subject with complete callosal agenesis. Praxic control of the left hand on verbal commands was severely deficient in the callosotomy subject, but it was normal in the subject with callosal hypogenesis. The lesser degree of compensation in partial compared to complete callosal agenesis may be explained by a reduced pressure to develop extracallosal means of interhemispheric communication, contingent on the partial existence of callosal connections, as well as by the later occurrence in development of the causes of callosal hypogenesis compared to those of total callosal agenesis.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = communication
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