Cases reported "Apraxias"

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1/3. The use of a digital voice output device to facilitate language development in a child with developmental apraxia of speech: a case study.

    PURPOSE: The study aimed at describing the language and communication abilities of a child diagnosed with Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS), who used a Macaw Digital voice output device. METHOD: This case study describes the training of a mother in the use of a Macaw digital voice output device to give her child with DAS access to higher levels of language functioning. It also provides longitudinal information pertaining to the child's school progress in the three years following the implementation of the device. RESULTS: Results indicate that the use of a digital device is useful in facilitating communication and language development in a young child with DAS. Specific evidence of an increase in the cognitive complexity of questions directed at the child is provided, as well as an increase in the number of questions directed to the child. Regarding the child's responses, it was noted that appropriate answers increased, as did the number of communication modalities and communication attempts. Longitudinal data indicates that the child was able to maintain these positive impacts. CONCLUSIONS: Digital voice output devices can be used as a method to facilitate higher cognitive functioning and has various positive impacts on the functioning of a child with DAS. These devices need to be considered as a tool to facilitate the development of communication and speech development for this population.
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keywords = voice
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2/3. Crossed apraxia of speech: a case report.

    The present study reports on the first case of crossed apraxia of speech (CAS) in a 69-year-old right-handed female (SE). The possibility of occurrence of apraxia of speech (AOS) following right hemisphere lesion is discussed in the context of known occurrences of ideomotor apraxias and acquired neurogenic stuttering in several cases with right hemisphere lesion. A current hypothesis on AOS-the dual route speech encoding (DRSE) hypothesis-and predictions based on DRSE were utilized to explore the nature of CAS in SE. One prediction based on the DRSE hypothesis is that there should be no difference in the frequency of occurrence of apraxic errors on words and non-words. This prediction was tested using a repetition task. The experimental stimuli included a list of minimal pairs that signaled voice-voiceless contrasts in words and non-words. Minimal-pair stimuli were presented orally, one at a time. SE's responses were recorded using audio and videotapes. Results indicate that SE's responses were characterized by numerous voicing errors. Most importantly, production of real word minimal pairs was superior to that of non-word minimal pairs. Implications of these results for the DRSE hypothesis are discussed with regard to currently developing perspectives on AOS.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = voice
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3/3. Neurogenic dysphonia.

    Disorders of phonation and resonation subsequent to damage to the central or peripheral nervous system (neurogenic dysphonia) typically occur with alterations in other aspects of motor speech: articulation, prosody, and respiration. Deficits in voice initiation or coordination of resonation with speech that occur without significant neuromuscular impairment following a lesion to Broca's area are compatible with a motor speech programming disorder, or apraxia of speech. Conversely, damage to upper or lower motor neurons subserving motor speech results in a group of neuromuscular speech disorders, the dysarthrias, which have signs including aberrations of phonation and resonation which can be differentiated. The neuropathologic and perceptual characteristics of neurogenic dysphonia are elucidated, and suggestions are provided for their identification and differentiation.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = voice
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