Cases reported "Arachnoid Cysts"

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1/29. Delayed postoperative CSF rhinorrhea of intrasellar arachnoid cyst.

    CSF rhinorrhea due to a transsphenoidal approach usually follows accidental or intentional arachnoid opening. We report a patient with an intrasellar arachnoid cyst, who developed delayed onset of CSF rhinorrhea. A sixty-two-year-old man presented with bitemporal type visual field defect for the last 3 years. With the diagnosis of arachnoid cyst or Rathke's cleft cyst, based on MRI findings of intra-and supra-sellar cyst with CSF intensity, he successfully underwent transsphenoidal surgery without evidence of intra-operative CSF leakage. He developed CSF rhinorrhea one week later. This needed another operation for sellar floor repair. The pathomechanism of this delayed onset is explained as follows. Incomplete or oneway communication of subarachnoid space to cyst cavity, unrecognized during surgery, might cause delayed onset of CSF rhinorrhea. By using MRI, identification of the residual gland, which was compressed posteriorly, is useful for differentiating an arachnoid cyst from other cystic lesions. In highly suspect cases, even without evidence of intra-operative CSF leakage, peri-operative measures to prevent occurrence of postoperative CSF rhinorrhea are required.
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2/29. Surgical management of symptomatic intrasellar arachnoid cysts--two case reports.

    Two patients with symptomatic intrasellar arachnoid cyst were successfully treated. A 67-year-old female with a cyst 20 mm in diameter developed headache and visual disturbance. She was treated by transsphenoidal surgery. A 59-year-old male with a cyst measuring 35 x 30 x 50 mm causing headache, visual disturbance, and deterioration of consciousness was managed by wide resection of the cyst wall via craniotomy. Postoperative courses in both patients were uneventful. Transsphenoidal surgery may be suitable for small to medium-sized cysts, although tight packing of the sella is mandatory to prevent leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. However, craniotomy is recommended for large intra- and suprasellar arachnoid cysts to avoid this complication, and to achieve sufficient communication between the cyst and the subarachnoid cistern.
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3/29. Infantile arachnoid cyst compressing the sacral nerve root associated with spina bifida and lipoma--case report.

    A 2-year-old boy presented with a rare sacral arachnoid cyst manifesting as gait disturbance. neuroimaging revealed an intradural cyst in the sacral nerve root sheath associated with spina bifida occulta and a lipoma at the same level. At surgery, the conus medullaris was situated at the L-1 level and not tethered. The highly pressurized arachnoid cyst had exposed the dural sheath of the left S-2 nerve root and compressed the adjacent nerves. An S-2 nerve root pierced through the cyst. There was no communication between the cyst and spinal arachnoid space. We thought the one-way valve mechanism had contributed to the cyst enlargement and the nerve compression. Radical resection of the cyst was not attempted. A cyst-subarachnoid shunt was placed to release the intracystic pressure. Postoperatively, his gait disturbance improved and no deterioration occurred during the 4-year follow up. Both tethered cord syndrome and sacral arachnoid cyst in the nerve root sheath should be considered in pediatric progressive gait disturbance. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt is an alternative method to cyst resection or fenestration to achieve neurological improvement.
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4/29. Interhemispheric cyst causing leg monoparesis in the elderly--case report.

    A 64-year-old female presented with a rare case of interhemispheric cerebral cyst manifesting as progressive monoparesis in the right lower extremity for 2 years. Surgical excision of the cyst wall was performed and communication to the subdural space was created. Postoperatively, the cyst was greatly reduced in size, and the neurological signs and symptoms were markedly improved. Interhemispheric cyst often presents with motor disturbances such as hemisparesis or paraparesis. These symptoms tend to progress slowly and sometimes years are required for a proper diagnosis. Interhemispheric cyst can also cause slowly progressive monoparesis in the lower extremity.
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5/29. Effectiveness of a transforaminal surgical procedure for spinal extradural arachnoid cyst in the upper lumbar spine.

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts are relatively rare, and the pathogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a 24-year-old woman with a Type I lesion by Nabors' classification (extradural arachnoid cyst without spinal nerve root fiber involvements), who complained of low back pain and right thigh pain, treated surgically using a transforaminal approach. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myelography showed a large extradural cystic lesion close to the L1 nerve root sleeve, accompanied by moderate L1 nerve root compression and a communication between the extradural cyst and the subarachnoid space. Resection of the cyst wall and closure of the ostium were easily performed by this approach. This procedure resulted in the relief of both low back pain and right thigh pain. Histological examination showed clusters of meningothelial cells, which was a typical feature of arachnoid cysts. Postoperative MRI demonstrated that both the cystic lesion and nerve root compression had disappeared. This transforaminal procedure proved useful for the treatment of a lesion located around a lumbar spinal nerve root.
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6/29. Interhemispheric arachnoid cyst in the elderly: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative differential diagnosis of interhemispheric cysts is sometimes difficult. CASE DESCRIPTION: We recently experienced a case of symptomatic interhemispheric arachnoid cyst in a 62-year-old woman. We reviewed interhemispheric arachnoid cysts in the elderly and the management of symptomatic interhemispheric arachnoid cysts in elderly patients. Symptomatic interhemispheric arachnoid cysts in the elderly are predominantly located on the right side, have a long history of progressive symptomology, occur predominantly in females, and have no communication with the subarachnoid space. Interhemispheric arachnoid cysts are usually not associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum in elderly patients, whereas interhemispheric nonarachnoid cysts are usually associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum, which will be clearly demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSIONS: It is highly possible that an interhemispheric cyst without agenesis of the corpus callosum in an adult is an arachnoid cyst.
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7/29. Huge arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa with cerebellar tentorium dysplasia associated with juvenile polyposis.

    We report an infant with a huge arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa with dysplasia of the cerebellar tentorium and meningeal sinus and associated juvenile polyposis. neuroimaging studies disclosed a huge median cystic lesion extending posterosuperiorly over the cerebellum. The cerebellar tentorium was raised to the parietal area; the vermis was normoplastic. Cystography showed no direct communication with the 4th ventricle or subarachnoid space. We discuss the differential diagnosis of median cysts of the posterior fossa and the association of juvenile polyposis.
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8/29. syringomyelia associated with hydrocephalus and Blake's pouch cyst: case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: This is a case report of a 37-year-old woman who sought treatment for a large syringomyelic cavitation extending from C3 to the entire medulla, a tetraventricular hydrocephalus, and a cystic cavitation in the posterior cranial fossa communicating with the fourth ventricle (Blake's pouch cyst). The patient underwent a decompressive craniectomy, a C1 laminectomy, and the opening of the cysts to enable communication with the subarachnoid spaces. After an initial period of symptom remission, reassured by the magnetic resonance images indicating a reduction of the syringomyelia, the patient's neurologic conditions deteriorated because of further dilation of the ventricular cavities, which was resolved by the insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. OBJECTIVE: To suggest the treatment of choice in a patient with syringomyelia and hydrocephalus caused by Blake's pouch cyst. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Blake's pouch cyst is an entity often poorly understood, deriving from nonperforation of the primitive foramen of Magendie, causing a precarious equilibrium of the cerebrospinal fluid flow resulting from a defect in communication between the fourth ventricle and the encephalic and spinal subarachnoid spaces. Authors report the association of Blake's pouch cyst with cervicodorsal syringomyelia and tetraventricular hydrocephalus. methods: A case of syringomyelia associated with hydrocephalus and Blake's pouch cyst is described. RESULTS: Symptoms of syringomyelia and hydrocephalus disappeared only after positioning of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of choice for a case of syringomyelia associated with Blake's pouch cyst and hydrocephalus is the application of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt or, even better, an endoscopic third ventriculostomy.
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9/29. Detection of a dural defect by cinematic magnetic resonance imaging and its selective closure as a treatment for a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst.

    STUDY DESIGN: We document a giant spinal extradural arachnoid cyst treated by selective closure of the dural defect. It was diagnosed using cinematic magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI). OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effectiveness of selective closure of the dural defect as a treatment for a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The standard treatment for a spinal extradural arachnoid cyst is total resection of the cyst wall, if possible, and the closure of the communication site, if any, between the cyst and the subarachnoid space, after an extensive laminectomy. To our knowledge, selective closure of the dural defect through minimal laminotomy with little cyst resection has not been reported. methods: A 29-year-old woman presented with right leg muscle weakness and was diagnosed with an extradural arachnoid cyst ranging from spinal regions T11 to L3 using MRI. myelography demonstrated that the cyst communicated with the subarachnoid space. Cine-MRI showed a pulsating flow voiding on the left side of level L1, suggesting the location of the communication site. Fenestration of the T12-L1 region was performed, preserving the spinous processes and the facet joints. A small dural rent was found on the left side of level L1. This was closed using small clips. RESULTS: MRI 12 days later demonstrated that the cyst had shrunk dramatically. It had disappeared completely by 4 months. The patient's muscle weakness improved gradually, and she was almost complaint-free 6 months after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Selective closure of the dural defect based on cine-MRI will be useful for treating extradural arachnoid cysts.
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10/29. Chronic subdural haematoma and arachnoid cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

    We present the unusual association between chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH), intracranial arachnoid cyst and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in a 27-year-old man. CSDH is a documented complication of intracranial arachnoid cyst, the incidence of which is increased in patients with ADPKD. awareness of this association may lead to earlier diagnosis of ADPKD and treatment of its systemic complications, including renal insufficiency, systemic hypertension and previously unsuspected intracranial saccular aneurysm. Surgery for CSDH associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst may be complicated by over-drainage of cerebrospinal fluid due to communication between the cyst and the cisternal subarachnoid space, as illustrated in the present case, and the development of epidural haemorrhage.
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