Cases reported "Arachnoid Cysts"

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1/37. "Growing fontanelle": a serious complication of difficult vacuum extraction.

    Growing skull fractures in combination with leptomeningeal cysts are well known in childhood. A rare case of a growing fontanelle due to a leptomeningeal cyst is presented. The cyst occurred due to a traumatic delivery with vacuum extraction. Operative repair of the cyst revealed a dural tear at the border of the fontanelle. The imaging findings are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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2/37. Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts located anterior to the cervical spinal cord. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    The authors describe two rare occurrences of radiographically, surgically, and pathologically confirmed spinal intradural arachnoid cysts (not associated with additional pathological entities) that were located anterior to the cervical spinal cord. These lesions have been reported previously in only eight patients. The patients described in this report were young adults who presented with progressive spastic tetraparesis shortly after sustaining mild cervical trauma and in whom no neurological deficit or bone fracture was demonstrated. The presence of an intradural arachnoid cyst was detected on postcontrast computerized tomography (CT) myelography and on magnetic resonance imaging; both diagnostic tools correctly characterized the cystic nature of the lesion. Plain radiography, plain tomography, and contrast-enhanced CT scans were not diagnostic. In both cases a laminectomy was performed, and the wall of the cyst was excised and fenestrated with subarachnoid space. Postoperatively, the patients made complete neurological recoveries. Based on a review of the literature, arachnoid cysts of the spinal canal may be classified as either extra- or intradural. Intradural arachnoid cysts usually arise posterior to the spinal cord in the thoracic spine region; however, these cysts very rarely develop in the cervical region. The pathogenesis of arachnoid cysts is unclear, although congenital, traumatic and inflammatory causes have been postulated. The authors believe that the formation of an arachnoid cyst cannot be explained by simply one mechanism because, in some reported cases, there has been accidental or iatrogenic trauma in association with congenital lesions. They also note that an intradural arachnoid cyst located anterior to the cervical spinal cord is an extremely rare disorder that may cause progressive myelopathy; however, the postoperative prognosis is good.
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ranking = 0.0026523223302186
keywords = fracture
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3/37. An arachnoid cyst involving only the hypoglossal nerve: case report and review of the literature.

    We describe a patient with an arachnoid cyst, possibly of traumatic origin, at the hypoglossal canal producing atrophy of the tongue. An arachnoid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a localized cystic mass around the cranial nerves at the base of the skull.
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ranking = 0.0052916449152047
keywords = skull
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4/37. Growing skull fracture of ethmoid: a report of two cases.

    We describe a rare sequel of ethmoid fracture--a growing skull fracture associated with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea following trauma sustained in adult life. The natural history of its development, diagnosis, and the results of surgery are discussed. The literature is reviewed with regard to aetiology, incidence, imaging characteristics and management of this rare post-traumatic complication.
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ranking = 5.0026523223302
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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5/37. The strange association of pneumosinus dilatans and arachnoid cyst: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: The authors present the case of a 71-year-old man with dramatic pneumosinus dilatans adjacent to a large, symptomatic, fronto-temporal arachnoid cyst. METHOD: The literature on pneumosinus dilatans and its association with arachnoid cyst is reviewed. FINDINGS: Pneumosinus dilatans may be either idiopathic, a reaction to an adjacent meningioma, or an 'ex-vacuo' response to cerebral volume loss and intracranial hypotension. It is also found with large arachnoid cysts and is probably under-recognised in this context. The co-existence of an expansile intradural lesion with changes in the skull base that tend to reduce the intracranial volume is puzzling, and has not yet been fully explained. Differences in the relative timing of paranasal sinus and arachnoid cyst growth, and the 'temporal agenesis' theory of arachnoid cyst formation have been proposed but do not account for all the features of this unusual association. INTERPRETATION: Pneumosinus dilatans is a useful and under-recognised indicator of the presence and chronicity of a variety of intracranial pathologies. Its association with arachnoid cyst is paradoxical, and a new explanation is offered as to how this may arise.
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ranking = 0.0052916449152047
keywords = skull
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6/37. Intradural arachnoid cyst associated with thoracic spinal compression fracture: 7-year follow up after surgery.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report with long-term follow after a surgical procedure. OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of intradural arachnoid cyst secondary to a compression fracture in the thoracic spine and to report long-term results after surgical treatment with hemilaminectomy. SETTING: Osaka, japan. methods: A 68-year-old man who had a traumatic intradural arachnoid cyst following an adjacent compression fracture of T5 underwent surgery. Intraoperatively, after recognition of intradural arachnoid cyst with an echogram following hemilaminectomy, the dural sac was incised and the arachnoid cyst was resected under microscopic observation. RESULTS: At 7 years after the operation, the low intensity within the vertebral body of the compression fracture had resolved and the spinal cord remained in its normal shape and position. No progression of kyphotic deformity was detected. CONCLUSION: A compression fracture of the thoracic spine can be associated with an intradural arachnoid cyst. Microscopic resection via hemilaminectomy for the cyst showed a good result in a 7-year follow up.
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ranking = 0.021218578641749
keywords = fracture
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7/37. Early management of craniocerebral injury with avoidance of post-traumatic leptomeningeal cyst formation. Report of two cases.

    Leptomeningeal cyst, or growing skull fracture, is a rare complication of pediatric head trauma. This entity is typically diagnosed several weeks or months following head trauma when an enlarging scalp mass is recognized. Progressive neurologic deficits (seizures, paresis) can accompany this process, which typically do not improve following conventional surgical treatment. Given that radiographic findings are highly predictive of which children are likely to develop a leptomeningeal cyst, we have adopted a policy of early management in an effort to avoid difficult surgical dissections and progressive neurologic sequelae seen with delayed intervention. The cases of two infants with skull fractures are used to illustrate our approach toward early management of post-traumatic leptomeningeal cysts.
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ranking = 2
keywords = skull fracture, skull, fracture
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8/37. Post-traumatic intradiploic leptomeningeal fistula and cyst.

    A 59 year old female patient presented with ataxia and difficulty in walking. The neurological examination revealed right homonymous hemianopia and ataxia. Radiographic evaluation revealed a large occipital intradiploic cyst mainly in the left suboccipital area. There was also moderate hydrocephalus and encephalomalacia of the left occipital pole. Bone window studies also demonstrated a growing fracture extending from the upper pole of the cyst to the vertex. Both pathologies were attributed to child abuse the patient suffered when she was a child. At first surgery, decompression of the cerebellum was followed by duroplasty and acrylic cranioplasty to the posterior cranial fossa. A month later, a shunt had to be inserted for hydrocephalus. At 7 months postoperatively, the patient is well and free of any symptoms or recurrence.
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ranking = 0.0026523223302186
keywords = fracture
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9/37. Chronic subdural hemorrhage into a giant arachnoidal cyst (Galassi classification type III).

    The authors present CT and MRI of a patient with an extremely large arachnoidal cyst (Galassi classification type III). The cyst extended from the base of the skull, posterior to the brain stem, on the base of the temporal lobe over the complete convexity of the left hemisphere. The cyst consisted of multiple compartments with intracystic septa and was accompanied by a chronic subdural hemorrhage in the compartments. After contrast agent application, the typical characteristics of chronic subdural membranes were found. Besides bony deformities, a thinning of the inner table was found. The patient underwent craniotomy for evacuation of the hemorrhage and fenestration of the septa while he was free of symptoms. This is a remarkable case proving that chronic local intracranial pressure does not inevitably lead to neurologic symptoms or intellectual disabilities.
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ranking = 0.0052916449152047
keywords = skull
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10/37. Nontraumatic intradiploic arachnoid cysts--report of five cases.

    Five cases of nontraumatic intradiploic arachnoid cysts in elderly patients are reported. All cysts were located in the occipital bone and appeared as well-demarcated radiolucent lesions. The cysts were multiple in three cases. Presenting symptoms included headache or dizziness, but most lesions were asymptomatic and found incidentally. In the most recent three cases, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed intradiploic cysts containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with cerebellar herniation. Operation found the cysts filled with CSF and dural defects through which cerebellar tissue was herniating. In two patients, CSF leakage from the outer table occurred. Intradiploic arachnoid cyst seems to be congenital in origin but commonly found in the elderly. MR imaging is the most useful diagnostic method for differential diagnosis from other osteolytic skull lesions.
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ranking = 0.0052916449152047
keywords = skull
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