Cases reported "Arenaviridae Infections"

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1/4. Management of a Sabia virus-infected patients in a US hospital.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the hospital precautions used to isolate a Sabia virus (arenavirus: arenaviridae)-infected patient in a US hospital and to protect hospital staff and visitors. DESIGN: Investigation of a single case of arenavirus laboratory-acquired infection and associated case-contacts. SETTING: A 900-bed, tertiary-care, university-affiliated medical center. patients OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: The case-patient became ill with Sabia virus infection. The case-contacts consisted of healthcare workers, coworkers, friends, and relatives of the case-patient. INTERVENTION: Enhanced isolation precautions for treatment of a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) patient were implemented in the clinical laboratory and patient-care setting to prevent nosocomial transmission. The enhanced precautions included preventing aerosol spread of the virus from the patient or his clinical specimens. All case-contacts were tested for Sabia virus antibodies and monitored for signs and symptoms of early disease. RESULTS: No cases of secondary infection occurred among 142 case-contacts. CONCLUSIONS: With the frequency of worldwide travel, patients with VHF can be admitted to a local hospital at any time in the united states. The use of enhanced isolation precautions for VHF appeared to be effective in preventing secondary cases by limiting the number of contacts and promoting proper handling of laboratory specimens. patients with VHF can be managed safely in a local hospital setting, provided that appropriate precautions are planned and implemented. ( info)

2/4. Fatal illnesses associated with a new world arenavirus--california, 1999-2000.

    The california Department of health services (CDHS) and the University of texas Medical Branch (UTMB) recently identified evidence of infection with an arenavirus in three patients hospitalized with similar fatal illnesses. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases. ( info)

3/4. Transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by organ transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: In December 2003 and April 2005, signs and symptoms suggestive of infection developed in two groups of recipients of solid-organ transplants. Each cluster was investigated because diagnostic evaluations were unrevealing, and in each a common donor was recognized. methods: We examined clinical specimens from the two donors and eight recipients, using viral culture, electron microscopy, serologic testing, molecular analysis, and histopathological examination with immunohistochemical staining to identify a cause. Epidemiologic investigations, including interviews, environmental assessments, and medical-record reviews, were performed to characterize clinical courses and to determine the cause of the illnesses. RESULTS: Laboratory testing revealed lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in all the recipients, with a single, unique strain of LCMV identified in each cluster. In both investigations, LCMV could not be detected in the organ donor. In the 2005 cluster, the donor had had contact in her home with a pet hamster infected with an LCMV strain identical to that detected in the organ recipients; no source of LCMV infection was found in the 2003 cluster. The transplant recipients had abdominal pain, altered mental status, thrombocytopenia, elevated aminotransferase levels, coagulopathy, graft dysfunction, and either fever or leukocytosis within three weeks after transplantation. diarrhea, peri-incisional rash, renal failure, and seizures were variably present. Seven of the eight recipients died, 9 to 76 days after transplantation. One recipient, who received ribavirin and reduced levels of immunosuppressive therapy, survived. CONCLUSIONS: We document two clusters of LCMV infection transmitted through organ transplantation. ( info)

4/4. arenavirus infection--connecticut, 1994.

    On August 20, 1994, the connecticut Department of public health and Addiction Services received a report of a case of acute illness in a virologist suspected to be associated with Sabia virus, a newly described arenavirus. This report preliminary findings from the case investigation. ( info)

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