Cases reported "Arm Injuries"

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1/34. Post-traumatic distal nerve entrapment syndrome.

    Eleven patients with paralysis of muscle groups in the upper or lower extremity were clinically diagnosed after previous proximal direct trauma to the corresponding peripheral nerves, without complete nerve disruption. patients were seen within an average of 8 months after trauma (minimum 3 months and maximum 2 years after). Nerve lesions were caused either by gunshot, motor-vehicle accident, and other direct trauma or, in one case, after tumor excision. All patients presented with complete sensory and motor loss distal to the trauma site, but demonstrated a positive Tinel sign and pain on testing over the "classic" (distal) anatomic nerve entrapment sites only. After surgical release through decompression of the nerve compression site distal to the trauma, a recovery of sensory function was achieved after surgery in all cases. Good-to-excellent restoration of motor function (M4/M5) was achieved in 63 percent of all cases. Twenty-five percent had no or only poor improvement in motor function, despite a good sensory recovery. Those patients in whom nerve compression sites were surgically released before 6 months after trauma had an improvement in almost all neural functions, compared to those patients who underwent surgery later than 9 months post trauma. A possible explanation of traumatically caused neurogenic paralysis with subsequent distal nerve compressions is provided, using the "double crush syndrome" hypothesis.
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2/34. The shaking trauma in infants - kinetic chains.

    The findings in three children who died as a consequence of shaking and those in another child who survived are presented. In the three fatal cases, a combination of anatomical lesions were identified at autopsy which appear to indicate the sites where kinetic energy related to the shaking episodes had been applied thus enabling the sequence of events resulting in the fatal head injury to be elucidated. Such patterns of injuries involved the upper limb, the shoulder, the brachial nerve plexus and the muscles close to the scapula; hemorrhages were present at the insertions of the sternocleidomastoid muscles due to hyperextension trauma (the so-called periosteal sign) and in the transition zone between the cervical and thoracic spine and extradural hematomas. Characteristic lesions due to traction were also found in the legs. All three children with lethal shaking trauma died from a subdural hematoma only a few hours after the event. The surviving child had persistant hypoxic damage of the brain following on massive cerebral edema. All the children showed a discrepancy between the lack of identifiable external lesions and severe internal ones.
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3/34. Treatment of painful neuromas: a case report.

    The authors report a 15-year history of management of multiple recurrent neuromas in a patient with an amputated arm. Various surgical modalities were employed, including burying the nerve ends in muscle and bone. In addition, they also treated successfully one of the neuromas in this patient by capping the transected nerve with an extended autologous vein graft. This application of the extended autologous venous nerve conduit may be a novel alternative in the treatment of this challenging problem.
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4/34. replantation of large segments in children.

    If one looks at the final results obtained in children, one should conclude that replantation of large segments is more often indicated in children than in adult patients. Nevertheless, the more common components of crush or avulsion and the frequent severe associated lesions must restrain the surgeon's enthusiasm when indicating replantation of a large segment in children. The possible dramatic consequences of a late revascularization syndrome can be easily foreseen as an outcome of replantation of a large segment in children. Moreover, the problem of growth must be faced from the start, programming secondary surgery either for soft tissue assessment (skin retraction treatments, tendon lengthening, muscle sliding) or for bone lengthening. The final outcome being a functional arm, special care has to be taken in nerve repair integrated with possible secondary tendon transfers to compensate the functional deficit. With all these limitations in indications, care in emergency, and correct timing and planning for secondary surgery, the final functional results of macroreplantations in children will certainly be improved.
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5/34. Clinical outcome following nerve allograft transplantation.

    The clinical outcome of seven patients who underwent reconstruction of long upper- and lower-extremity peripheral nerve gaps with interposition peripheral nerve allografts is reported. patients were selected for transplantation when the nerve gaps exceeded the length that could be reconstructed with available autograft tissue. Before transplantation, cadaveric allografts were harvested and preserved for 7 days in University of wisconsin Cold Storage Solution at 5 degrees C. In the interim, patients were started on an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of either cyclosporin A or tacrolimus (FK506), azathioprine, and prednisone. immunosuppression was discontinued 6 months after regeneration across the allograft(s) was evident. Six patients demonstrated return of motor function and sensation in the affected limb, and one patient experienced rejection of the allograft secondary to subtherapeutic immunosuppression. In addition to providing the ability to restore nerve continuity in severe extremity injuries, successful nerve allografting protocols have direct applicability to composite tissue transplantation.
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6/34. Complex regional pain syndrome (type I) after electrical injury: a case report of treatment with continuous epidural block.

    A 26-year-old man presented with severe complex regional pain syndrome type I of the affected limb after a work-related electrical injury. He suffered causalgia-like pain with no electrodiagnostic evidence of nerve injury. Early steroid and analgesic regimens did not adequately relieve these symptoms. His symptoms were temporarily relieved several times with stellate ganglion blocks. The patient underwent a cervical epidural block with a local anesthetic as well as a narcotic agonist over a 4-day period, which resulted in prompt, remarkable pain relief. Vocational rehabilitation was instituted as the pain subsided.
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keywords = nerve, block
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7/34. Primary and secondary microvascular reconstruction of the upper extremity.

    Tissue defects of the upper extremity may result from trauma, tumor resection, infection, and congenital malformation. Restoration of anatomy and functional integrity may require microsurgical free flap transfer for coverage of bones, nerves, blood vessels, or tendons. Microsurgical tissue transfer also may be required prior to secondary reconstruction, such as tendon transfers or nerve or bone grafts. This article addresses indications for upper extremity reconstruction using microsurgical tissue transfer flap selection and strategies including primary and secondary reconstruction.
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8/34. Acute nerve grafting in traumatic injuries: two case studies.

    Primary nerve grafting in traumatic injuries is rarely performed because of the uncertainty of the extent of injury, the limited availability of nerve grafts, and the damage to adjacent soft tissue. In this report the authors present two cases of acute nerve grafting after trauma-the first of the common peroneal nerve and the second of the ulnar nerve above the elbow-with sensory and motor recovery. Although compelling general arguments against primary posttraumatic nerve grafting exist, these cases illustrate that, in certain favorable and critical clinical situations, acute nerve grafting may be successful.
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9/34. Repeated upper limb salvage in a case of severe traumatic soft-tissue and brachial artery defect.

    We present the case of a 9-year-old male patient who suffered a gunshot injury to the right arm. The patient arrived in shock, his right arm severely traumatized, with soft-tissue loss involving the anterior surface and both sides of the right arm. The humerus was exposed. There was brachial artery defect and damage to the lateral fibers of the median nerve. The mangled extremity severity score (MESS) was 8 points. The patient was treated with general resuscitation, blood transfusion, and debridement. A venous graft, 12 cm in length, to bridge the brachial artery defect, and tendon transfer, triceps to the biceps, was performed in one step. Postoperatively, there was a normal radial pulse, normal skin color, normal temperature, and normal movement of the fingers without pain. Unfortunately, the patient then sustained a second trauma to the right arm 3 weeks later, rupturing the graft. This time he lost 1,500 cc of blood. After another blood transfusion, we performed a second reverse saphenous vein graft. The patient stayed at the hospital for 3 weeks. At follow-up 12 months later, the limb has good function and, except for the presence of a scar and skin graft, is equal in appearance to the left side.
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10/34. Archery-related injuries of the hand, forearm, and elbow.

    The five patients reported herein had various archery-related injuries of the upper extremities. Acute injuries included arrow laceration of a digital nerve and artery, contusion of forearm skin and subcutaneous tissue, and compression neuropathy of digital nerves from the bowstring. Chronic injuries included bilateral medial epicondylitis and median nerve compression at the wrist, de Quervain's tenosynovitis, and median nerve compression at the elbow. Essential measures for archery safety include use of archery protective gear, use of a light-weight bow, conditioning of the forearm flexor muscles, and modifications in drawing the bowstring.
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