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1/6. When does low mean high? Isolated cerebral ventricular increased intracranial pressure in a patient with a Chiari I malformation.

    OBJECTIVE: To present an unusual case of pseudotumor cerebri with increased intracranial pressure isolated to the cerebral ventricles resulting from a Chiari I malformation. MATERIALS AND methods: The patient received a complete ophthalmologic examination on initial presentation and subsequent visits, including visual acuity, pupillary examination, intraocular pressures, dilated fundus examination with assessment of degree of papilledema, and visual field testing. intracranial pressure was measured by lumbar puncture and subsequently by intracranial pressure bolt monitoring. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to diagnose the Chiari I malformation. RESULTS: The patient initially presented with bitemporal headaches, elevated opening pressure on lumbar puncture, and mild papilledema with a normal MRI. After lumboperitoneal shunt placement and several revisions, the patient presented with decreased vision OD secondary to Terson syndrome and worsening papilledema. Subsequent evaluation revealed normal lumbar opening pressures and a Chiari I malformation. She underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement with resolution of her symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Tonsillar herniation is a well-documented complication of lumboperitoneal shunt revision. Obstruction of cerebrospinal flow through the foramina of Magendie and Luschka can result in increased intracranial pressure isolated to the cerebral ventricles. In a patient with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure but normal lumbar opening pressure, a Chiari I malformation should be suspected, particularly with a history of multiple lumboperitoneal shunt revisions.
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2/6. Symptomatic congenital hydrocephalus in the elderly simulating normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    In a series of 30 older patients shunted for symptomatic hydrocephalus, we found 3 with a head circumference at or greater than the 98th percentile. In 2, we demonstrated deterioration over 6 and 12 months by serial videotaping of gait and neuropsychological testing. In the 3rd, serial lumbar punctures over a 6-month period gave temporary improvement. In each, CTs showed ventriculomegaly without transependymal flow. One patient had an Arnold-Chiari type I abnormality identified by MRI. All had systemic hypertension. CSF pressure monitoring showed CSF pressure greater than 15 mm Hg 39% of the time in 1 patient, and 100% in another. All improved with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. patients with probable compensated congenital hydrocephalus who functioned well throughout most of their lives may become symptomatic as they age but improve with shunt surgery. The head circumference should be measured in all older hydrocephalic patients.
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3/6. Intermittent obstructive hydrocephalus in the arnold-chiari malformation.

    A 26-year-old woman with a Chiari-I malformation and intermittent symptoms of intracranial pressure elevation is described. Clinically, papilledema was accompanied by midperipheral retinal hemorrhages. Repeat computed tomographic scans and lumbar puncture showed normal results. Posterior fossa-directed magnetic resonance image scanning revealed the Chiari-I malformation. Intraventricular monitoring was necessary to demonstrate the marked but unsustained elevation of intracranial pressure.
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4/6. Combined CT metrizamide syringography and needle aspiration of cystic intramedullary spinal cord lesions.

    A modified spinal cord puncture technique that was combined with CT metrizamide syringography for the evaluation of potentially cystic spinal cord lesions has been used in 5 patients. This procedure proved to be safe and efficacious in the preoperative differentiation of cystic neoplasms from syringohydromyelia. It also aided in planning a surgical approach by revealing details of the tumor location and/or syrinx dynamics. spinal cord puncture associated with CT metrizamide syringography has a role in the diagnosis and therapy of patients with cystic spinal cord lesions.
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5/6. "Acquired" Chiari I malformation after multiple lumbar punctures: case report.

    The authors present the history of a patient with a Chiari I malformation "acquired" after multiple traumatic lumbar punctures. The genesis of tonsillar descent is believed to be related to persistent leakage of cerebrospinal fluid secondary to the multiple traumatic lumbar punctures. The topic of acquired Chiari I malformations and complications of lumbar puncture is reviewed.
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6/6. Oscillopsia and horizontal nystagmus with accelerating slow phases following lumbar puncture in the arnold-chiari malformation.

    Oscillopsia and nystagmus began in a woman 2 weeks after an inadvertent lumbar puncture during anesthesia for childbirth. Examination showed horizontal-torsional jerk nystagmus in all positions of gaze. Magnetic-search-coil oculography revealed accelerating slow phases, with an increase in nystagmus amplitude in darkness. Magnetic resonance images showed type 1 arnold-chiari malformation. Three months after occipital decompressive surgery, nystagmus had almost disappeared. Accelerating slow phases should not be considered diagnostic of congenital nystagmus, especially with an onset of oscillopsia in adult life; imaging should be considered to exclude treatable hindbrain anomalies. Lumbar puncture in patients with the arnold-chiari malformation may accentuate craniospinal pressure dissociation and precipitate neurological signs.
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