Cases reported "Arteriosclerosis"

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1/94. University of Miami Division of Clinical pharmacology Therapeutic Rounds: ischemic renal disease.

    Ischemic renal disease (IRD) is defined as a significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate and/or loss of renal parenchyma caused by hemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis. IRD is a common and often overlooked clinical entity that presents in the setting of extrarenal arteriosclerotic vascular disease in older individuals with azotemia. IRD is an important cause of chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and many patients with a presumed diagnosis of hypertensive nephrosclerosis may actually have undiagnosed ischemic nephropathy as the cause of their ESRD. The primary reason for establishing the diagnosis of IRD is the hope that correction of a renal artery stenosis will lead to improvement of renal function or a delay in progression to ESRD. There are six typical clinical settings in which the clinician could suspect IRD: acute renal failure caused by the treatment of hypertension, especially with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; progressive azotemia in a patient with known renovascular hypertension; acute pulmonary edema superimposed on poorly controlled hypertension and renal failure; progressive azotemia in an elderly patient with refractory or severe hypertension; progressive azotemia in an elderly patient with evidence of atherosclerotic disease; and unexplained progressive azotemia in an elderly patient. It is important for the clinician to identify IRD, because IRD represents a potentially reversible cause of chronic renal failure in a hypertensive patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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2/94. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis.

    Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis is an unusual entity with light microscopic and ultrastructural features similar to those of nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis but without evidence of abnormal glucose metabolism. We report 2 patients whose renal biopsies showed nodular glomerulosclerosis with afferent and efferent arteriolosclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, focal mesangiolysis and capillary microaneurysm formation, and who had no evidence of abnormal glucose metabolism or other features of diabetes mellitus. review of the literature shows that, of the 27 reported cases of idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (not including the 2 cases reported herein), 11 showed evidence of abnormal glucose metabolism or were frankly diabetic. Of the remaining 16 cases with normal serum blood glucose measurements, 3 had diabetic retinopathy and 1 had a delayed insulin response curve. The cause and pathogenesis of the glomerular nodules are discussed, and it is suggested that arteriolar stenosis and glomerular ischemia may be involved in the development these lesions.
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ranking = 0.2345472933964
keywords = diabetic
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3/94. Minimally invasive approach for aortic arch branch vessel reconstruction.

    Minimally invasive aortic arch branch vessel reconstruction was successfully accomplished in four patients over the past 3 years. There were no operative complications. Three patients had an uneventful hospital course, ranging from 3 to 5 days. The fourth patient with multiple medical problems and severe peripheral vascular disease had a prolonged hospital course for reasons unrelated to the surgical procedure. This minimally invasive surgical exposure can be used to effectively and safely repair innominate and left common carotid artery lesions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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4/94. Endovascular treatment of noncarotid extracranial cerebrovascular disease.

    The last two decades have witnessed a growing application of endovascular techniques for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial vertebral arteries, subclavian arteries, and brachiocephalic artery. Beginning with simple balloon angioplasty, these minimally invasive techniques have now progressed to the use of stent-supported angioplasty. Stent-supported angioplasty is currently providing a therapeutic alternative to traditional methods of open surgery for revascularization of these vessels and increasing the therapeutic options available for patients who have failed maximal medical therapy. Additionally, endovascular techniques are also being used successfully to treat a variety of nonatherosclerotic diseases affecting the noncarotid extacranial arteries, such as inflammatory, radiation, and anastomotic-graft strictures; acute intimal dissection; traumatic and spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas; and aneurysms or pseudoaneurysms. Continued innovation and refinement of endovascular devices and techniques will inevitably improve technical success rates, reduce procedure-related complications, and broaden the endovascular therapeutic spectrum for extracranial cerebrovascular disease.
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ranking = 5
keywords = vascular disease
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5/94. Ten years' experience of aortic aneurysm associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    BACKGROUND: aortic aneurysm is a rare but life-threatening cardiovascular complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic clinical features and the pathological mechanism of aneurysmal formation in these patients. methods: among 429 patients operated on for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) during the past 10 years, five cases with SLE were treated surgically. Their clinical data were reviewed, and the resected aneurysmal wall of the five patients was also examined histologically. RESULTS: the mean age of the patients with SLE was 55 years, which was statistically younger than that of the other patients (mean 77 years, s.d. 7.9, p <0.05). They had received long-term corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of SLE for a mean of 23 years. Histologically, destruction of the medial elastic lamina was characteristic. Four patients had no complications in the postoperative follow-up period (mean 4 years), while the remaining patient died of rupture of a dissecting aneurysm two years after operation. CONCLUSION: prolonged steroid therapy may play a major role in accelerating atherosclerosis, which can result in aortic aneurysmal enlargement, possibly together with primary aortic wall involvement and/or vasculitic damage in patients with SLE.
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ranking = 0.3300768863168
keywords = vascular complication
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6/94. Superior mesenteric and renal artery embolism during PTA and re-stenting of infrarenal abdominal aorta. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    The authors report a case of acute superior mesenteric and right renal artery embolism that occurred during an interventional radiological procedure on the abdominal aorta of a young diabetic woman. The onset of a severe abdominal pain during the procedure evoked the clinical suspicion of intestinal ischemia related to the dislodgement of atheroembolic material into the mesenteric artery; the event was correctly diagnosed, but the surgical therapy was delayed by many hours because of the fact that the patient was in a peripheral hospital of the region and had to be transferred to our institution. Fortunately in spite of the considerable delay, the operation was fully successful, probably because of the favourable location of the embolus, which allowed collateral splanchnic circulation to maintain a good metabolic balance.
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ranking = 0.078182431132133
keywords = diabetic
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7/94. Integrated minimally invasive approaches for the treatment of atherosclerotic vascular diseases: Hybrid procedures.

    patients may develop simultaneous symptoms of atherosclerotic vascular disease from different arterial beds. A concurrent minimally invasive approach to the management of these clinical situations may be an advantage over conventional surgical procedures. This study describes two separate case series of patients undergoing coronary/peripheral (n = 38) and peripheral/peripheral procedures (n = 10). Technical and clinical success was achieved in all patients. There were two periprocedural complications (retroperitoneal bleed and septicemia) in the coronary/peripheral series and no complications in the peripheral/peripheral series. We also present five case reports to illustrate the utility of hybrid procedures in various clinical settings. This study suggests that the use of simultaneous or sequential minimally invasive procedures appears to be a safe and feasible strategy for the treatment of patients with symptoms from more than one vascular bed. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2001;52:154-161.
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ranking = 5
keywords = vascular disease
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8/94. The clinical implications of insulin resistance.

    insulin resistance is a prime risk factor associated with atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Other risk factors include dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension. The constellation of those factors, which is known as the cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome, increases the risk of macrovascular disease. insulin resistance may contribute directly to cardiovascular disease and may also act as a precursor of diabetes, which is also associated with an increased risk of macrovascular disease. insulin resistance can be difficult to assess clinically, but it is invariably present in patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment of insulin resistance includes diet, exercise, smoking cessation, strict control of hypertension, aggressive treatment of lipid abnormalities, and keeping the hemoglobin A1c level below 7%. New oral agents improve glycemic control for those with diabetes or insulin resistance, but their role in reducing the risk of macrovascular disease is undetermined.
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ranking = 4
keywords = vascular disease
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9/94. Management of hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients presenting with hyperuricaemia: case histories.

    A number of studies have shown that hyperuricaemia is associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. It has been proposed that the elevated serum uric acid levels are linked to other risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Hyperuricaemia is commonly encountered in patients with essential hypertension and is considered as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension. In addition, lipid abnormalities (mainly hypertriglyceridaemia) are also found more frequently in hypertensive patients than in normotensives. There is evidence that the angiotensin ii receptor antagonist, losartan, increases urate excretion by reducing reabsorption of urate in the renal proximal tubule. It is also known that fibric acid derivatives (fibrates) have several beneficial actions in addition to their lipid-lowering capacity. fenofibrate administration is associated with a uric acid lowering effect. In this respect, we present two patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia together with elevated serum uric acid levels. We also discuss (in the format of questions and answers) the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the association of serum uric acid with cardiovascular disease, and we review the relevant literature to justify an evidence-based decision to choose an antihypetensive agent (losartan) or a lipid-lowering drug (fenofibrate) with an additional hypouricaemic effect.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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10/94. Trapped renal arteries: functional renal artery stenosis due to occlusion of the aorta in the arch and below the kidneys.

    Acute renal failure is a well recognized complication from the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with severe bilateral renovascular disease. A 54-year-old woman presented with acute pulmonary edema with intractable hypertension and a history of lower limb claudication. The addition of lisinopril to her antihypertensive regimen resulted, within 48 h, in the development of acute renal failure that remitted with cessation of the drug. She was found to have a heavily calcified occlusion of her aortic arch and another occlusion of the aorta below the renal arteries. angiography and Doppler ultrasonography showed normal renal arteries. This is the first reported case of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced renal failure occurring in a patient with atherosclerotic occlusion of the aorta. The literature on suprarenal aortic occlusion is reviewed to determine the manner of presentation, prevalent risk factors and physical findings that typify this unique clinical entity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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