Cases reported "Arteriosclerosis"

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1/897. Bilateral subclavian steal syndrome through different paths and from different sites--a case report.

    Cases of cerebro-subclavian steal syndrome have been reported in the medical literature since 1960. This most often occurs on the left side because of the higher rate of involvement of the left subclavian artery in comparison to the other brachiocephalic branches of the aortic arch. With the use of the internal mammory artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass, in the past three decades increasing numbers of coronary-subclavian steal in addition to the cerebro-subclavian steal have been observed. The authors report a case of bilateral subclavian steal syndrome through both vertebral arteries, the right common carotid artery, and the left internal mammory artery, without significant signs and symptoms of cerebral ischemia or anginal pain. ( info)

2/897. The use of antioxidants in retarding atherosclerosis: fact or fiction?

    The proposal that antioxidants may retard the progression of atherosclerosis is not new. Published studies examining the effect of antioxidants on experimental antioxidants extend back to 1940. The results have all been inconsistent. However, the data regarding the beneficial effects of retarding atherosclerotic progression are strong enough to warrant continued research on the lipoprotein oxidation theory or atherosclerosis. However, caution is needed to avoid embracing a concept without proof. It should be noted that the National cholesterol education Program does not recommend the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements to reduce CAD. Atherogenesis is produced by multiple factors. To believe that all such factors are mediated by uncontrolled oxidative events is, to say the least, naive. Finally, should antioxidants prove to be effective in retarding coronary atherosclerosis, their place on the therapeutic ladder of CAD prevention would be low. The overwhelmingly proven evidence favors the following factors that have been proven to lower morbidity and mortality due to atherosclerosis: (a) treatment of hypertension, (b) cessation of tobacco use, (c) treatment of dyslipidemia, (d) achieving a normal weight, (e) regular exercise, (f) treatment of homocystinuria, especially in cases with renal disease, and (g) antioxidants. ( info)

3/897. University of Miami Division of Clinical pharmacology Therapeutic Rounds: ischemic renal disease.

    Ischemic renal disease (IRD) is defined as a significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate and/or loss of renal parenchyma caused by hemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis. IRD is a common and often overlooked clinical entity that presents in the setting of extrarenal arteriosclerotic vascular disease in older individuals with azotemia. IRD is an important cause of chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and many patients with a presumed diagnosis of hypertensive nephrosclerosis may actually have undiagnosed ischemic nephropathy as the cause of their ESRD. The primary reason for establishing the diagnosis of IRD is the hope that correction of a renal artery stenosis will lead to improvement of renal function or a delay in progression to ESRD. There are six typical clinical settings in which the clinician could suspect IRD: acute renal failure caused by the treatment of hypertension, especially with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; progressive azotemia in a patient with known renovascular hypertension; acute pulmonary edema superimposed on poorly controlled hypertension and renal failure; progressive azotemia in an elderly patient with refractory or severe hypertension; progressive azotemia in an elderly patient with evidence of atherosclerotic disease; and unexplained progressive azotemia in an elderly patient. It is important for the clinician to identify IRD, because IRD represents a potentially reversible cause of chronic renal failure in a hypertensive patient. ( info)

4/897. Atherosclerotic aneurysms of the superficial femoral artery: report of two ruptured cases and review of the literature.

    Isolated arteriosclerotic aneurysms of the superficial femoral artery are rare. In citing the literature a total of 30 cases in 28 patients in the last 25 years were found. In addition to the above cases, two aged patients with ruptured aneurysms of the superficial femoral artery are reported; these were managed successfully with partial aneurysmectomy and restoration of the circulation of the extremity with a synthetic graft. The prognosis for this type of aneurysm following surgical therapy is good, despite the advanced age of the patients, and amputation is relatively rare, occurring in only two out of the 30 aneurysms (6.6%) reported. The risk of rupture is 46.6% (14/30) and is greater than that found in peripheral aneurysms. This, in association with the possibility of the creation of thrombosis (5/30; 16.6%) or embolization (1/30; 3.3%), threatens the extremity itself as well as the life of the patient, increasing the risk of complications and even death at a rate of 66.6% (20/30). Timely diagnosis, immediate surgical reconstruction and prompt mobilization, however, can guarantee a good prognosis for these aged patients. ( info)

5/897. atherectomy tools for arterial treatment.

    When considering limb salvage in patients with failed bypass or angioplasty, the threshold for cost effective use of atherectomy devices is important. Rotational ablation, in these cases, has offered a significant contribution to patient care. Decreased hospital stay, morbidity and mortality, plus improved quality of life are all factors in the calculation. Interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons and interventional cardiologists aim to maintain function, not to perfectly restore original anatomy. In this respect, percutaneous rotational ablation has a role as a useful device when indicated. Indications should include consideration of the pattern of disease and underlying pathology as much as the site and selection of the lesion. The Rotablator may be the device of choice in many coronary cases and it is an important device in planning peripheral revascularization procedures. It provides an option for patients and physicians who wish to achieve minimal invasion with the best possible results. ( info)

6/897. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer at the proximal aorta complicated with cardiac tamponade and aortic valve regurgitation.

    A 56-year-old man had a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer originating in the proximal ascending aorta, which is an unusual case of penetrating aortic ulcer complicated with the aortic valve regurgitation and cardiac tamponade. This hemodynamically unstable patient was successfully treated by conservative management to control his blood pressure and was also monitored closely with follow-up imaging studies. ( info)

7/897. Multiple extra-bone accumulations of technetium-99m-HMDP.

    Bone scintigraphy was performed on a woman 2 y and 10 mo after surgery for rectal cancer. Intense extra-bone accumulations of 99mTc-HMDP were visible in an aortic atherosclerosis lesion and in a metastatic liver tumor. Uptake in the metastatic lesion was confirmed by x-ray CT. Uptake in the aortic lesion was shown as typical calcification by x-ray CT. ( info)

8/897. Retrograde embolization during saphenous vein graft angioplasty.

    angioplasty of degenerated saphenous vein grafts is not infrequently complicated by distal embolization of atheromatous debris. We describe an uncommon case in which balloon angioplasty of an old vein graft to a second diagonal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery was followed by distal embolization. However, the embolization occurred in a retrograde fashion distal to the anastomotic site, resulting in occlusion of the upstream first diagonal branch. The reasons for its occurrence are discussed, together with suggestions for its recognition. ( info)

9/897. Mediastinal irradiation: A risk factor for atherosclerosis of the internal thoracic arteries.

    Previous radiotherapy to the thorax is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. patients with radiation-induced atherosclerosis tend to be young and frequently have lesions involving the coronary ostia and left anterior descending artery. Bypass is often the most suitable method of revascularization, and given the young age of the patient, arterial conduits would be considered superior to vein grafts. However, the internal thoracic arteries can lie within the radiation field and may not be free of atherosclerosis. A 40-year-old man who required coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel coronary artery disease 11 years following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma is reported. Preoperative angiography showed that the right internal thoracic artery had significant atherosclerosis and was unsuitable as a conduit. ( info)

10/897. Acquired thromboatheromatous coarctation of the aorta: acquired coarctation of the aorta.

    BACKGROUND: Atheromatosis of the thoracic aorta and aortic arch is a well established source of systemic embolism. Acquired atheromatous coarctation of the aortic arch is a rare finding and not well documentated so far. CASE REPORT AND FINDINGS: Two patients presenting with intermittent claudication of the lower extremities were identified as having thromboatheromatous coarctation of the aortic arch as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography, fast CT scan, transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and aortography. All findings including invasive hemodynamics resembled congenital coarctation of the aorta. One patient was treated surgically, while the other refused surgery and received long-term anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Atheromatosis of the thoracic aorta and aortic arch not only cause systemic embolism, but may lead to the clinical and hemodynamic picture of coarctation of the aortic arch. ( info)
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