Cases reported "Arteriovenous Fistula"

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1/45. Arteriovenous fistulae complicating cardiac pacemaker lead extraction: recognition, evaluation, and management.

    Transvenous pacemaker lead extraction has become a commonly performed procedure that is associated with a small but significant risk. We report two cases where lead extraction was complicated by arteriovenous fistulae between branches of the aortic arch and the left brachiocephalic vein. Presenting signs and symptoms included severe chest or back pain, persistent or copious bleeding from the venous puncture site, unexplained hypotension or anemia, superior vena cava syndrome, and signs of central venous hypertension or acute heart failure. One patient whose injury was not recognized immediately and who did not undergo repair died rapidly, whereas the other patient who was diagnosed quickly underwent successful repair. Immediate diagnosis with arteriography and rapid intervention with surgery or percutaneous techniques are indicated and may prevent mortality.
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2/45. Spontaneous arteriovenous fistula resulting from hiv arteritis.

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are uncommon and usually follow trauma or preceding arterial catheterization or puncture. Spontaneous AVFs are rare. A case of spontaneous AVF of the superficial femoral artery and vein in an hiv-infected patient is presented. Histologic examination of the artery showed features similar to those seen in hiv-related large-vessel aneurysms. It would appear that spontaneous AVF are part of the spectrum of macrovascular arteritis related to hiv infection.
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3/45. Transvenous embolization for vertebral arteriovenous fistula: report of two cases and technical notes.

    BACKGROUND: Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are relatively rare. Although the common treatment is transarterial embolization, it may be impossible to pass through the fistula (e.g. a microfistula created by a needle puncture). We report two patients with vertebral arteriovenous fistulas due to penetrating trauma who were successfully treated by transvenous embolization. METHOD: We present 2 patients with vertebral arteriovenous fistulas. One patient is presented to demonstrate complications following attempted internal jugular cannulation and the other is presented to demonstrate complications after surgery for a jugular foramen neurinoma. Both patients manifested the sign of a severe bruit. FINDINGS: To identify the fistula point, simultaneous transarterial and transvenous angiography was performed. Using the transvenous approach, microcoils were applied to the fistula and the bruit completely disappeared. Interpretation. Transvenous embolization is a useful technique and a first-choice strategy to treat patients with the vertebral arteriovenous fistula due to penetrating trauma.
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4/45. Treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by deep orbital puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein.

    In a patient with progressive ophthalmological problems, including uncontrolled intraocular pressure related to a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula, urgent intervention may be necessary to prevent permanent visual loss. We report a case in which inadequate transarterial embolisation and lack of access for transvenous catheterisation, including a direct approach through the superior ophthalmic vein, preceded percutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein deep within the orbit, permitting venous occlusion without complications. This case demonstrates that deep orbital puncture of the vein is feasible for occlusion of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula.
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5/45. Conus perimedullary arteriovenous fistula with intracranial drainage: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Perimedullary arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) do not commonly present with subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial venous drainage causing neurological symptoms. We present a case with both of these features. The patient was inadvertently treated for an unruptured intracranial aneurysm before his true problem was recognized. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man presented with sudden-onset lower-extremity weakness, diplopia, nausea, and dysarthria on the day of admission. A lumbar puncture documented subarachnoid hemorrhage, and imaging studies revealed a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. It was noted during surgery that this aneurysm was unruptured, and the patient did not exhibit improvement after surgery. INTERVENTION: Spinal angiography demonstrated a spinal perimedullary AVF feeding from the left T12 radicular artery; venous drainage extended rostrally into the posterior fossa venous system. The AVF was surgically occluded via a posterior laminectomy at the level of the AVF. After surgery, the patient's symptoms began to abate. CONCLUSION: Conus perimedullary AVFs can have venous drainage that extends as far as intracranial veins, which can lead to confusing clinical findings because the symptoms may suggest an intracranial process, although the lesion is in the spine. Surgeons must be aware of this confusing presentation.
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6/45. Infective tricuspid valve endocarditis with septic pulmonary emboli due to puncture of an endogenous arteriovenous fistula in a chronic hemodialysis patient.

    BACKGROUND: patients on chronic hemodialysis are at high risk for infectious endocarditis due to prosthetic access devices such as cuffed venous catheters and polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. Right-sided endocarditis without any predisposing factors is rare in dialysed patients. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old man with chronic renal failure was referred to hospital due to febrile temperatures. Hemodialysis was performed via an autogenous arteriovenous fistula. He had neither any recognized underlying valve disease nor any percutaneous interventions previously. Chest radiography and computed-tomography revealed numerous lung abscesses caused by tricuspid endocarditis detected by transesophageal echocardiography. Antibiotics were given for 5 weeks curing the infection without necessity of surgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Primary arteriovenous fistulas have the lowest rates of infections and are the access of choice for chronic hemodialysis patients. However, repeated vascular punctures even of autogenous grafts expose dialysis patients to bacteremia and imply a higher risk of infectious endocarditis.
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7/45. Spontaneous disappearance of arteriovenous fistula between the vertebral artery and deep cervical vein--case report.

    A 58-year-old female was readmitted with pulsatile tinnitus in the right ear 8 months after subtemporo-occipital transtentorial clipping of a peripheral superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. On examination, she was normal except for pulsatile bruit over the right mastoid region. angiography showed a fistulous communication between the muscular branches of the right vertebral artery and the deep cervical vein. The incision of the aneurysm surgery was supratentorial, so the only possible cause of the upper cervical arteriovenous (AV) fistula was fine gold acupuncture needles implanted for bronchial asthma 18 years before. The AV fistula disappeared spontaneously after 1 month, possibly because of thrombosis of the affected veins.
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8/45. Sequential endovascular coil embolization for a traumatic cervical vertebral AV fistula.

    An arteriovenous (AV) fistula involving the cervical vertebral artery is rare. Iatrogenic injury from percutaneous puncture and penetrating wounds are the most common causes. Symptoms include tinnitus and the presence of a pulsatile mass with a thrill. Conservative treatment with coil embolization and preservation of the vertebral artery is an alternative to surgical intervention. We report a patient who developed an AV fistula involving the vertebral artery and internal jugular vein following surgical repair of a stab wound to the neck. The sequential endovascular coil embolism was performed with subsequent successful occlusion of fistula. No neurological deficit developed during or after intervention. This approach appears to be a safe method in the treatment of vertebral AV fistula.
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9/45. Spontaneous scalp arteriovenous fistula in a child with hartnup disease.

    PURPOSE: To report the endovascular treatment of a spontaneous scalp arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a child with hartnup disease. CASE REPORT: A 6-year-old girl with hartnup disease presented with recurrent attacks of intense, migraine-like, right-sided headache; a tender, pulsatile small mass was observed in the scalp. Selective digital subtraction angiography revealed a high-flow scalp AVF fed by the frontal branch of the right superficial temporal artery draining via the scalp veins. Endovascular treatment was performed by direct puncture of the distal feeding artery and injection of 2 mL of a 50% mixture of N-butyl-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol. Serial arteriograms performed 6 months and 2 years later documented complete resolution of the lesion. The patient has had no recurrence of clinical symptoms or local signs for recanalization. CONCLUSIONS: scalp AVFs may progress in size, causing significantly disabling symptoms, particularly in children. We recommend endovascular treatment at the earliest possible stage.
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10/45. Endovascular stent graft treatment for iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas after femoral catheterisation.

    This article presents a case report of a 79-year-old patient who was suffering from a large femoral arteriovenous fistula and a stenosis of the external iliac artery and who was treated successfully with stent grafts. The fistula, which consisted of three parts, was caused by a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Two Jo-stents and one Medtronic AVE stent were used to cover the fistula and to dilate the stenosis. This article also describes the possible causes of iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas such as the technique of arterial puncture and its localisation. The treatment of iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas with stent grafts is a safe alternative for surgery in patients who often suffer from multiple cardiovascular problems. It could become the treatment of choice in the future.
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