Cases reported "Arteriovenous Fistula"

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1/23. Carotid artery-sygmoid sinus fistula: a rare complication of gunshot wound on the base of the cranium.

    Vascular lesions without clinical manifestation may occur in cranial-facial wounds produced by bullets that course the base of the cranium. This work describes a rare kind of vascular complication in cranial-facial gunshot wound. The authors present the case of a patient, the victim of a cranium-maxillary gunshot wound. Carotid angiography revealed a carotid-sygmoid sinus fistula that filled the sygmoid and transverse sinuses, concomitant to the arterial angiographic phase. A direct communication between the external carotid artery and the sygmoid sinus was disclosed. We are not aware of any other description of this vascular complication in cranial gunshot wound. It is important to recognize this kind of complication in cases of cranial-facial gunshot wound, because new factors harmful to the brain perfusion systems are introduced, in addition to the alterations to venous return and intracranial pressure, caused by the primary trauma. The new non-invasive vascular diagnostic methods are proving useful in filling the gap left by arteriography, which is no longer used in these cases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular complication
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2/23. Local vascular complications after knee replacement: a review with illustrative case reports.

    The incidence of vascular complications after knee replacement is between 0.03% and 0.2%. These complications include acute ischaemia, thrombosis, haemorrhage, fistula and aneurysm formation. Vascular complications can be avoided by careful pre-operative selection. If doubt exists, a vascular opinion should be obtained before knee replacement. In the event of a vascular complication occurring, serious morbidity can be avoided by prompt diagnosis, investigation and specialist treatment.
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ranking = 3
keywords = vascular complication
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3/23. Renal arteriovenous fistula developing after tumor enucleation using a microwave tissue coagulator.

    With the increase in detection of incidental renal cell carcinoma, nephron-sparing surgery for small renal cell carcinomas is now recognized as one of the surgical options. We report a case of renal arteriovenous fistula developing after non-ischemic tumor enucleation of a small renal cell carcinoma using a microwave tissue coagulator. A 50-year-old Japanese man presented with right flank pain and gross hematuria. The patient had undergone non-ischemic tumor enucleation for right renal cell carcinoma, 2 cm in diameter, 1 month previously. Doppler ultrasound revealed the formation of an arteriovenous fistula at the enucleated portion. Transcatheter super-selective occlusion of the feeding artery was successfully performed with two metallic coils. The patient has been followed up with no sign of recanalization of the fistula. In this case, the tumor was located close to the renal hilus with thick arterial branches around the tumor. Additional microwave coagulations against arterial bleeding from the cutting surface might have been the cause of the fistula formation of this case. Non-ischemic tumor enucleation using a microwave tissue coagulator is a relatively easy and secure nephron-sparing surgical procedure. Excessive coagulation, however, should be avoided, since it might be the cause of unexpected postoperative vascular complications.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular complication
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4/23. Renal allograft arteriovenous fistula and large pseudoaneurysm.

    The patient was a 51-year-old female. Post-biopsy arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and pseudoaneurysm in a renal allograft were diagnosed 5 yr and 4 months after she received a renal transplantation. Four years after the diagnosis, interventional treatment for the AVF and pseudoaneurysm was performed because of a high risk of pseudoaneurysm rupture. Although the longitudinal diameter of the pseudoaneurysm was more than 5 cm, this AVF and pseudoaneurysm were treated successfully by a percutaneous transluminal embolization, and renal function has remained stable after embolization. A selective interventional procedure proved effective for the large pseudoaneurysm in the renal allograft. Therefore, when a transcutaneous needle biopsy of the renal allograft is performed, although there are no apparent symptoms or signs of vascular complications during the clinical course, periodical examinations such as echo-Doppler imaging should be made on the allograft.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular complication
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5/23. Endovascular closure of a large renal arteriovenous fistula.

    A case is described of a large renal arteriovenous fistula causing long-term cardiovascular complications. Successful percutaneous embolization was achieved using temporary occlusion balloons, Guglielmi detachable coils, regular nondetachable spring coils, and cyanacrylate. The advanced therapeutic tools we used can improve the prognosis of patients with large and complicated arteriovenous fistulas and prevent surgery.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular complication
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6/23. Carotid cavernous fistula and false aneurysm of the cavernous carotid artery: complications of transsphenoidal surgery.

    Injury to the cavernous internal carotid artery is an unusual and serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery. Two such patients with injury to the carotid artery, referred for endovascular treatment, are reported. The clinical course and successful treatment of these patients, one with an intracavernous false aneurysm and one with a carotid cavernous fistula, are described. A review of these vascular complications of transsphenoidal surgery is presented.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular complication
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7/23. Coronary artery fistulas: a review and case study.

    Coronary artery fistula is a congenital abnormality that can present with a variety of cardiovascular complications. This article presents a patient with a coronary artery fistula outlining the pathophysiology and course of hospitalization, with particular emphasis on nursing management of a patient with coronary artery fistula.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular complication
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8/23. Delayed presentation of bilateral popliteal artery injury.

    We describe a patient who developed serious vascular complications following gunshot wounds to both popliteal fossae. There was minimal evidence of vascular injury on presentation to hospital, in particular ankle systolic pressures were normal. Five days following the initial injuries he was found to have a false aneurysm of the popliteal artery in his right leg and an arteriovenous fistula affecting the popliteal vessels of his left leg. The roles of arteriography and Doppler pressure studies in assessment of possible peripheral vascular injury following penetrating trauma are discussed. It is emphasised that a high index of suspicion and careful clinical review is essential if vascular injuries and their complications are not to be missed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular complication
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9/23. Unusual late vascular complications of sagittal split osteotomy of the mandibular ramus.

    Intraoperative or early postoperative vascular complications are not uncommon problems in sagittal split osteotomies of the mandibular ramus; however, reports of late complications are considerably rarer. Here, we present two patients who sustained late vascular complications after the sagittal split osteotomy. The first patient had a delayed bleeding, which presented itself as a rapidly expanding swelling of the left cheek from the left external carotid artery 18 days postoperatively. During exploration, a 2 mm laceration of the external carotid artery located just proximal to the bifurcation of the internal maxillary artery and the superficial temporal artery was successfully repaired. The prominent bony spike of the cut end of medial cortex of the set-back mandibular ramus was found against the arterial wall and could possibly have caused the progressive necrosis of the wall with subsequent spontaneous rupture. The second patient suffered from a mild noise in the right ear 2 weeks after the initial surgery; however, a pre-auricular arteriovenous fistula between the right external carotid artery and the external jugular vein was discovered 1 year postoperatively. The diagnosis was confirmed by angiography, and the lesion was treated successfully by therapeutic embolization at that time. To avoid vascular injury, sufficient protection of the soft tissue during exposure of the mandibular ramus is mandatory. In addition, the direction of the cut of medial cortex is suggested to avoid the cranialward inclination that creates a sharp, bony end against the artery. awareness of the possible late vascular complications to facilitate early detection and management is also important.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = vascular complication
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10/23. Vascular complications of lumbar disc surgery. Case report.

    Four patients were successfully treated for vascular complications associated with lumbar disc surgery, one as an emergency case and three from 1 to 3 months postoperatively. Acute complications are often identified by severe bleeding. knowledge of the anatomy is essential for appropriate surgical repair, which may consist of patch-graft angioplasty or graft interposition. Treatment of late complications (usually arteriovenous fistula or false aneurysm) is often impeded by adhesions. Fistula repair is performed from inside the artery. Precautions against vascular complications during lumbar disc surgery are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular complication
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