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1/63. Intraventricular hemorrhage as a false localizing sign of a thoracolumbar arteriovenous malformation: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Spinal arteriovenous malformation (SAVM) is a relatively rare disease characterized by a high incidence of intramedullary and subarachnoid haemorrhage. When the hemorrhage is profuse and the SAVM is in the cervical region the symptoms (disturbance of consciousness, papilledema, cranial nerve palsies, and convulsions) may be so severe and rapid in their onset that they may be mistaken for intracranial hemorrhage. We report here on a patient with a SAVM at T10-12, which bled intracranially, mainly intraventricularly, and resulted first in respiratory arrest and unconsciousness. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient had been well until he was 28 years old when, during intercourse, he suffered a terrible headache and suddenly lost consciousness, with a transient respiratory arrest. He was also noted to have right hemiparesis. A computed tomography scan demonstrated intraventricular hemorrhage. After a 24-hour period of artificial ventilation the patient regained consciousness and the right arm paresis completely recovered, but a gradual worsening of the motor function of the left leg developed. Digital subtraction angiography did not demonstrate any intracranial source of bleeding, whereas spinal angiography revealed a SAVM located at the medullary cone, which was totally removed by surgery. CONCLUSION: The case reported here raises several important issues. First, the advisability of spinal magnetic resonance imaging in the investigation of intraventricular (and subarachnoid) hemorrhage in patients with no demonstrable intracranial source. Secondly, the benefits of early diagnosis and reestablishment of the spinal cord circulation before the onset of thrombosis and the progressive phase of myelopathy. Finally, the necessity of complete obliteration and treatment of SAVMs even in patients with fixed neurologic deficits, because rebleeding of lower thoracic or lumbar SAVMs can lead to impairment at a higher level with severe or lethal consequences.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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2/63. Anaesthetic management of a woman who became paraplegic at 22 weeks' gestation after a spontaneous spinal cord haemorrhage secondary to a presumed arteriovenous malformation.

    A 19-yr-old woman developed a paraplegia with a T10 sensory level at 22 weeks' gestation. The spinal injury was caused by spontaneous bleed of a presumed arteriovenous malformation in the spinal cord. She presented for Caesarean section at term because of the breech position of her fetus. The successful use of a combined spinal epidural-regional anaesthetic is described and the risks of general and regional anaesthesia are discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = haemorrhage
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3/63. Multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) associated with spinal AVM.

    The co-existence of multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and a spinal AVM is extremely rare. A 22-year-old man suddenly developed severe headache. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed intracerebral haemorrhage in the left occipital lobe. cerebral angiography revealed eight AVMs; four were in the right frontal lobe and two each were in the right temporal and left occipital lobe, respectively. A huge high-flow spinal AVM was found incidentally. He had no other vascular lesions such as hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. A left occipital craniotomy was performed and the ruptured left occipital AVMs were removed. Further therapeutic treatment was refused. To our knowledge, except for one autopsy case, this is the first reported patient with multiple cerebral AVMs with a spinal AVM. We discuss the characteristics of this case and review reported cases with cerebral and spinal AVMs.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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4/63. Fatal haemorrhage from Dieulafoy's disease of the bronchus.

    A 70 year old woman with a previous history of healed tuberculosis and suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with recurrent haemoptysis and respiratory failure from a lobar pneumonia. Massive bleeding occurred when biopsy specimens were taken during bronchoscopy which was managed conservatively, but later there was a fatal rebleed from the same site. Two different Dieulafoy's vascular malformations were found in the bronchial tree at necropsy, one of which was the biopsied lesion in the left upper lobe. This report confirms the possibility that vascular lesions occur in the bronchial tree. It is suggested that, if such lesions are suspected at bronchoscopy, bronchial and pulmonary arteriography with possible embolotherapy should be performed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = haemorrhage
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5/63. Small-bowel investigation in occult gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after careful endoscopy of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract is predominantly of small-bowel origin. patients presenting with overt blood loss account for a select subpopulation of those with small-bowel bleeding. Although relatively rare, these patients often require repeated blood transfusions, investigation, and hospitalization before a diagnosis is reached. These events have a considerable negative impact on the patient's quality of life. Standard evaluation using enteroclysis, tagged red cell studies, and angiography are proven to be of limited value in this context. Push enteroscopy has significant advantages in this patient group, with the ability to deliver endoscopic therapy. Sonde enteroscopy is now reserved for a few patients to guide decisions on surgery, particularly in those with significant medical comorbidity. Definitive evaluation may require perioperative enteroscopy, but many patients can be managed without the need for surgery. A team approach by physician, radiologist, and surgeon following locally agreed algorithms is essential for the successful management of this challenging clinical problem.
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ranking = 1.4142322192131
keywords = blood loss
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6/63. Arteriovenous shunting in a giant renal angiomyolipoma. A rare condition.

    We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and bilateral angiomyolipomas. She suffered from acute left flank pain due to retroperitoneal haemorrhage. During renal arteriography an arteriovenous shunting was found in the left tumour. angiomyolipoma is a rare cause of angiographically demonstrable arteriovenous shunting.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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7/63. Transcranial colour Doppler sonography in emergency management of intracerebral haemorrhage caused by an arteriovenous malformation: case report.

    We present a case which demonstrates the use of transcranial colour Doppler (TCCD) sonography in screening for an underlying arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in a middle-aged hypertensive patient with a spontaneous thalamic haematoma. The AVM was not detected on emergency CT but its presence, site and shape were demonstrated by TCCD, in the presence of a massive cerebral haemorrhage and acute intracranial hypertension.
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ranking = 5
keywords = haemorrhage
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8/63. Arteriovenous malformation mimicking femoral osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty.

    We encountered a case of apparent progressive femoral osteolysis around a well-fixed cementless implant in a young patient. At the time of revision arthroplasty, massive hemorrhaging occurred during exposure and attempted femoral component extraction. Urgent packing of the exposed endosteum with polymethyl methacrylate controlled the bone bleeding. Emergent angiography confirmed an arteriovenous malformation with extensive proximal diaphyseal involvement directly at the site of osteolysis. This arteriovenous malformation was treated successfully with selective arterial embolization and second-stage resection. In retrospect, the index arthroplasty operative note indicated an excessive amount of blood loss, and prerevision radiographs showed osteolysis with uncharacteristic vascular markings. The presence of an osteolytic lesion in total hip arthroplasty should not be assumed to be attributed to polyethylene granuloma, and any atypical radiographic features should prompt further preoperative investigations.
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ranking = 1.4142322192131
keywords = blood loss
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9/63. Spinal arteriovenous malformations: a review with case illustrations.

    Spinal arteriovenous malformations are united by the existence of arteriovenous shunting but are quite heterogeneous in terms of pathology. Until recently, the pathological confusion has been such that management has been poorly understood and this is magnified by the rarity of the lesions. Type 1 AVMs, where the fistula is located in the dura, usually present with a venous hypertensive myelopathy and are relatively easily dealt with surgically. Type 2 AVMs, most closely mimicking the parenchymal AVMs of the brain, usually present with haemorrhage and may be surgically remediable but with much greater risk than the type 1 lesions. Type 3 AVMs, with a diffuse location through both the cord and extra-CNS tissue, usually present early in life with a myelopathy and are often untreatable. Type 4 AVMs, with a fistula located on the pial surface of the cord, usually present with a venous hypertensive myelopathy or subarachnoid haemorrhage, can be treated relatively easily by surgery when small but may be better treated endovascularly when the fistula is large.The purpose of this review is to summarise the current pathological, clinical and management literature with illustrative cases underscoring the important features of this heterogeneous disorder.
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ranking = 2
keywords = haemorrhage
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10/63. Angioembolisation in vaginal vascular malformation.

    Vaginal arteriovenous malformations are rare entities and their most common presentation is vaginal haemorrhage. This case report describes a 22-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks of gestation with slow growing soft and tender swelling at anterior vaginal wall. Diagnosis was confirmed as vaginal vascular malformation on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The mass did not subside after delivery and patient developed dyspareunia. It was successfully treated by angioembolisation using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Angioembolisation being safe and effective should be the treatment of first choice for symptomatic vaginal vascular malformation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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