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1/58. Arteriovenous communication in the orbit.

    arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are anomalous communications between arterial and venous systems without interposed capillaries. These lesions are rarely entirely intraorbital. A case of an arteriovenous communication between branches of the internal and external carotid arterial circulations and the ophthalmic veins located within the orbit is reported. Treatment with embolization resulted in a branch retinal artery occlusion. Attempted direct arterial occlusion of a dural-based fistula of the eye is a risky procedure. If embolized, AVMs should probably be approached from the venous side, if at all.
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2/58. Multiple coronary arteriovenous fistulae.

    A case with multiple congenital coronary arteriovenous fistulae is reported. The right coronary artery was communicating with the right ventricle. The left coronary artery was entering directly into the pulmonary trunk and two terminal branches of the anterior descending into the left ventricle. The direct communication of the left coronary artery without interposition of an accessory artery or a circoid plexus is met for the first time.
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3/58. Transcatheter occlusion of a large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation with use of a Cardioseal device.

    Large pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) carry a significant risk of neurologic complications and present technical difficulties in transcatheter treatment with use of coils or detachable balloons. A 26-year-old man with a giant PAVM, who had undergone unsuccessful attempted closure with use of a Gianturco-Grifka occlusion device in the past, underwent successful transcatheter embolization with two Cardioseal double umbrella devices designed for occlusion of intracardiac communications. The procedure was technically easy, had no complications, and provided sustained improvement in arterial saturation and exercise tolerance during follow-up. Transcatheter double umbrella device occlusion of large arteriovenous malformations is feasible and should be considered, especially for very large fistulas.
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4/58. Retinal arteriovenous communication.

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in development of the embryonic vascular system, though uncommon, may cause formation of retinal arteriovenous communications (RAC). Such anomalies may also involve the intracranial, orbital, and maxillofacial blood vessels. Field loss, neovascular glaucoma, optic atrophy, Parinaud syndrome, hemiparesis, hemiplegia, and proptosis may be associated with RAC. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old woman was referred for photography of a vascular anomaly in her left eye. I noted a large arteriovenous malformation joining major temporal branches of the left central retinal artery and vein. External and internal examination of both eyes was otherwise unremarkable. Visual-field testing revealed nasal field disturbances for the left eye, but none for the right eye. CT scan showed no obvious intracranial abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Visual-field testing may show scotomas associated with retinal arteriovenous communications. It is possible for patients with RAC to have no associated vascular abnormalities elsewhere in the circulation of the head.
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5/58. Transcatheter creation of an atriopulmonary communication in the Hemi-Fontan or Glenn circulation.

    There have been several modifications of the fontan procedure, which has been used for palliation of the functionally univentricular circulation since its conception in the early 1970s. The development of intrahepatic veno-venous fistulas, pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas, and communications from the hepatic vein to the pulmonary venous atrium, are some of the complications encountered by patients with cavo-pulmonary communications. We describe transcatheter creation of an atriopulmonary communication, with simultaneous implantation of a stent, as a method of reducing or preventing pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas and associated right-to-left shunting in this setting. The intervention has been undertaken in two patients following a Hemi-fontan procedure, itself created subsequent to a Glenn anastomosis. The combination of these procedures creates communicating atriopulmonary and cavopulmonary circulations.
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6/58. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu disease, is a rare disorder characterized by arteriovenous communications in visceral organs. The diagnosis of HHT consists of recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, visceral vascular lesion and familial occurrence. HHT can be definitely diagnosed with the presence of all these three criteria. The prevalence of liver involvement of HHT was reported to range from 8 to 31%. Herein, we present a 75-year-old male who was diagnosed as having HHT with liver involvement, based on the findings of recurrent epistaxis, mucosal telangiectasis on the lower lip and hepatic arteriovenous malformation. The clinical presentations of this patient are discussed, and the literature is reviewed.
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7/58. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: mechanical ventilation and hypoxemia.

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is an uncommon congenital anomaly. As PAVM is a direct communication between branches of the pulmonary artery and vein, major disturbances in gas exchange can result. We present a patient with an unsuspected PAVM who came to our institution for drainage of a brain abscess. Arterial blood gas analysis during and after surgery demonstrated a large alveolar-arterial gradient for oxygen in the absence of any obvious pulmonary pathology while the patient was receiving positive pressure ventilation (PPV). Oxygenation improved considerably upon resumption of spontaneous ventilation. A diagnosis of PAVM was made subsequently. We conclude that positive pressure ventilation can worsen right to left shunting in patients with PAVM.
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8/58. Anomalous communication of external carotid and vertebral arteries with associated intracranial parenchymal arteriovenous malformation: magnetic resonance angiography and angiographic findings.

    A case of anomalous communication of the external carotid and vertebral arteries via a pro-atlantal intersegmental artery (PIA) with an associated intracranial parenchymal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is presented. The course of the PIA is displayed by both conventional catheter angiography and by MR angiography (MRA). To our knowledge, neither an associated intracranial parenchymal AVM nor depiction of this congenital anomaly on MRA has been previously described. We also briefly review the embryology and anatomy of this anomaly.
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9/58. Systemic to pulmonary vascular malformation.

    A case is reported of life-threatening haemoptysis as a result of an anomalous communication between a bronchial artery and pulmonary vein, demonstrated by angiography. The patient recovered following bilobectomy of the right lower and middle lobes. When a systemic artery is involved in an arteriovenous malformation of the lung, haemodynamics are different compared with those present in malformations fed by the pulmonary artery. This implicates other clinical features, options for surgical intervention and prognosis. In reviewing the literature, a relationship with Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is absent in these specific malformations.
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10/58. Congenital bilateral renal arteriovenous malformation: an unrecognized cause of renal failure.

    Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are very rare abnormal communications between arteries and veins. These lesions are almost always unilateral, predominantly in the right kidney, and usually asymptomatic until adulthood. We present a unique case of bilateral renal AVM in a 10-year-old white boy who developed renal failure requiring renal transplantation. Microscopic sections of an atrophic right and a slightly larger left kidney with tortuous and dilated hilar vessels showed elaborate derangement of arteries and veins insinuating between lobules. Glomeruli were diffusely enlarged with increased number of capillary loops. glomerular basement membrane reduplication and fibrinoid necrosis was focally noted. Electron microscopy demonstrated absence of electron-dense deposits or mesangial interposition excluding membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. We believe that the glomerular lesions are secondary to congenital renal arteriovenous malformation. To our knowledge, bilateral arteriovenous malformation in infancy is not previously described.
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